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AFFIXATION: General characteristics of affixes nd their rela

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Agnesa Bicurri

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Transcript of AFFIXATION: General characteristics of affixes nd their rela

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UNIVERSITY OF PRISHTINA
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

Topic: AFFIXES
General characteristics of affixes and their relation between English and Albanian language

Professor:
Prof.ass.dr.Shkelqim Mullaku


Prizren, December, 2013
Affixation is a part of word formation process in English language
Prefixes
Suffixes
Transfixes
Infixes
unimportant
childhood
daraba-''to beat''
abso-bloomin'-lutely
Suffixes usually modify the lexical meaning of the base and transfer word to different parts of speech or they do not change the meaning of the base
Suffixes
Class-maintaining suffixes do not change the class of the word they are added to.
child (noun) +
- hood
= childhood
miq (noun meaning friend) +
- ësi
(suffix) = miqësi
Class - changing suffixes - change the class of the word they are added to.
argument (noun) +
- ative =
argumentative (adjective)

mbret (noun meaning king)
- ëri
(suffix) = mbretëri (uncountable noun meaning royalty)


profitably = profit +
-able + -ly
njerëzishëm = njerëz + -
ish + -ëm
Compound suffixes or group seffixes:
Classification of Suffixes

Noun-forming suffixes :
(-age, -ee, -er, -ist, -hood, - ion, -sion, -ism, -ment, -ness, -dom, etc. )
e.g.
teach +
-er
= teacher ; pass +
-age
= passage;
In Albanian language : (-tar, -shtar, -ues, -imi, etc)
e.g.
gar +
-ues
= garues (a racer) ; fill +
-imi
=fillimi
(beginning);


Adjective forming suffixes
: ( -able, -ible, -al, -tal, -ant, -ent, -less, -ful, etc )
e.g.
manage +
-able
=manageable ; harm +
-ful
=
harmful;
In Albanian language : ( -ueshëm, -er, -osur, -shem, -ur, -uar, -osh, -es, etc)
e.g.
mrekulli (wonder) +
-ueshëm
= mrekullueshëm
(wonderful); emocion (emotion) +
-uar
= emocionuar
(enthusiastic)
1)
Part of speech suffixes
Verb forming suffixes:
( -en, -ify, -fy, -ize, -ise, etc)
e.g.
bright +
-en
= brighten
general +
-ise
= generalize.
In Albanian ( -va, -ur, -a, -shë, -zoj, -het )
e.g.
fshi + -
va
= fshiva (cleaned)
( -ly, -ward, -wise, etc)
e.g.
excellent +
-ly
= excellently ; vote +
-wise
= vote wise.
Adverb forming suffixes :
In Albanian ( -ur, -isht, etc)
e.g.
paprit +
-ur
= papritur ( suddenly );
vazhdim +
-isht
=vazhdimisht ( continuously)
Student: Agnesa Kabashi-Bicurri
2)
Suffixes can also be classified according to lexico-grammatical character
De- verbal suffixes
: ( -er, -ing, -ment, -able )
e.g. speak + -
er
= speaker ; agree + -
ment
= agreement
In Albanian : ( -ës, -oj, -eshmëri )
e.g.
fol (speak) + - ës = folës ; pajtu (agree) + - eshmëri = pajtueshmëri
De-nominal suffixes
: ( - less, -ish, -ful, -ist, -some )
e.g.
hand + -
less
= handless ; mouth +
-ful
=mouthful
In Albanian : ( -ror, -ist )
e.g.
fëmijë (child) +
-ror
= fëmijëror (childish) ; violin (violin) + -
ist
=violinist

De-adjectival suffixes
:
( -en, -ly, -ish, -ness )
e.g.
black +
-en
= blacken ; bright + -
ness
= brightness
In Albanian : ( -remt, - rosht)
e.g.
kuq (red) +
-remt
= kuqëremt (readish) ; bukur + -
rosh
= bukurosh (handsome)
Prefixes
Prefixation is the process of adding the prefix to a word root.
1) Prefixes not correlated with any independent word ( un-, dis-, re-, post- )
e.g.

unhappy, rewrite,
etc
In Albanian :
rindërtuar (rebuilt), pasigurt (unsafe)
, etc


2) Prefixes correlated with functional words : (out-, over-, up-, under-,etc )
e.g.
over the river (to overpass), run out ( to out grow )
, etc
In Albanian :
jasht-funksionit (out of fnction )
Classification Of Prefixes
Prefixes
CONCLUSION
Albanian and English language are rather similar when it comes to affixation and also classification of suffixes and prefixes.
Because of the lexical gaps or even due to language relativity theory, two languages are not morphologically identical.
Affixes in Albanian language are grouped by function according to the class of the word, while in English affixes play a major role in word formation process, in some cases they maintain the word class or change it completely.
Thank you for your attention !
class changing : be- befriend, de- defrost.

class maintaining : un- uncover, non- nonstop.
class of words :
e.g. pilot- co- pilot (nouns),war- pre- war (noun - adjective)
lexical grammatical :
de- verbal e.g. rewrite, overdo ; de-nominal e.g. unbutton,detrain ;
de- adjectival e.g. uneasy, biannual.
mono- semantic :
e.g. ex- husband, ex- president ; poly- semantic : e.g. disadvantage, diseconomy, etc


Negative prefixes
(a-, de-, dis-, in-, un-, etc) e.g. apolitical ; In Albanian (pa-, a- ) e.g. paedukatë, amorale.
Reversative prefixes
(
un-, de-, dis- ) e.g. unblock, decontrol ; In Albania (pa-, de- ) e.g. palidhur, decentralizuar.


: (mal-, psudo-, mis-, etc) e.g. misinform,maltreat ; In Albanian (mos-, keq-) e.g. mosinformim, keqtrajtim, etc
Pejorative prefixes (negative)
Generic denotational meaning there are different groups of prefixes:
Prefixes of time and order
:
(fore-, pr-, ante-, post-, etc) e.g. forecast, ante reformation ; In Albanian (para-, pas-, m-, ish-, ) e.g. parakohe, mëparshëm
Prefixes of repetition
(re- ) e.g. reappear, rebuild ; in Albanian (ri- ) rindërtim, rishfaqur, etc
Locative prixes
(ante-, mid-, pan-, extra-, trans-, super-, etc) e.g. anteroom, pan- American ; In Albanian (mes-, inter-, ekstra-, trans-, etc) e.g. ekstravagante, transformim ,etc
.
Latin prefixes
(mal-, medi-, non-, pro-, uni-, etc) e.g. omnipotend, pro-Albanian, etc) ; In Albanian (uni-, non- ) e.g. universal, nonstop
Number prefixes
(uni-, mono-, bi-, tri-, multy-, semi-, etc) e.g. bilingual, tricycle, semicircle, etc) ; In Albanian ( uni-, tre-, shumë-, një-, gjysmë-, etc) e.g. unikat, trefish, njëanësore.
Other prefixes are
(auto-, neo-, step-, proto-, foster-, etc) e.g. prototype, stepfather, fostermother, etc ; In Albanian (auto-, proto-) e.g. autobiografi, prototip, etc
According to the degree of productivity :
Highly productive :
under-underfeed, underprivileged
Productive

: (re-, un-, dis- ) e.g. reorganize unlock, disconnect.
Non productive :
(a-, for-, with-, forth- ) e.g. forthcoming, forever.
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