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Physical Science - Chapter 3.1
Sarah Gleasonon 12 September 2013
Transcript of Physical Science - Chapter 3.1
Kinetic energy is transferred as gas particle move and collide
States of Matter
States of Matter
Materials are classified as solids, liquids or gases.
This classification is based on their shapes and volumes - whether they are definite or variable
State of matter where materials have a DEFINITE shape and a DEFINITE volume
Another State of Matter?!
Matter that has a DEFINITE volume, not NOT a definite shape.
Kinetic Energy - the energy that an object has due to its motion (energy in motion)
The faster an object moves the GREATER its kinetic energy
Even the particles inside a moving object are moving!!
**Most Metals are solids
Find solid, liquid and a gas
Shapes and Volume
are clues to how the particles with the material are arranged
Have a recognizable shape and take up a certain amount of space
**DEFINITE shape doesn't mean they can NEVER change shape - just means that the solid won't change shape when placed in a glass
**Orderly and arranged pattern of particles
A liquid ALWAYS has the same shape as its container
The volume, however, doesn't change in a container
The Particles in Liquids
The arrangement of particles is MORE random than a solid.
There is more disorganization and more space between the particles
State of Matter in which the material has NO definite shape and NO definite volume
A gas will take the shape AND volume of any container that it is in
It can expand to fill a room, or condense to fill a box
Particles in a Gas
Particles in a gas are very random and disordered
There can be lots of space between the particles as the expand
Or there can be not as much space between the particles as they condense.
This is a state of matter that 99% of the UNIVERSE is in
Found at extremely HIGH temperatures - like on stars (whose matter exists as plasma)
5th State of Matter?
Bose - Einstein Condensate (BEC)
This is a state of matter that occurs are REALLY LOW temperatures
Describes how light can behave in certain circumstances
Named after Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein
6th State of Matter?
No Just Kidding :)
Kinetic Theory of matter says that ALL particles of matter are in constant motion!!
Explain the behavior of matter!!!
Particles in a gas are NEVER at rest
Their average speed is 1600 km per hour
Some gases move faster, some slower
Why do Gas Particles NOT affect the other Particles when they collide??
There are forces of attraction in between particles in all matter - including gases
Under normal conditions scientist ignore the forces of attraction in gases
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Says that the constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or size
3 Main Points in the Theory:
1. Particles in a gas are in CONSTANT random motion
2. The motion of the particles is unaffected by the motion of other particles UNLESS they collide
3. Forces of attraction among particles can be ignored under ordinary conditions.
Behavior of Liquids
Their particles move - so why do they have a definite volume??
Because the average speed of their particles is much slower -
They have a GREATER mass, which partly leads to a slower speed
Also the particles are more tightly packed together than a gas - limiting movement
Force of Attraction LIMIT Liquid's particle motion
So a liquid takes the shape of its container (because particles can flow to new locations)
And a liquid's volume is constant - because forces of attraction keep the particles close together
Behavior of Solids
Particles in a solid have "fixed" locations and do not change
Solids have the same definite volume and the same definite shape in fixed locations
The atoms vibrate and move in their positions - but do NOT exchange places with the neighboring atoms