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Transcript of Gender Socialization
Looking at the Development of Gender Stereotypes
Jennifer Holden Hypothesis Null Hypothesis:
Children's preference of toys, occupation, and sports
are not directly influenced by parents gender stereotype. Research Hypothesis:
Children's preferences in toys, occupations and sports will reflect the influences of parents gender stereotpe. Methods:
Obtained 4 types of toys:
-2 toy cars
-2 sets of blocks
Measures of children: record the child's gender
tally number of times the child plays with a toy
question child on beliefs about occupations
question child on sports
1. Relationship to child
2. Gender of child
3. 3 Point Liakert
4. Open Ended Questions
Parents were sent home a survey and asked to complete it and return it to the preschool
All children were interviewed face to face
Sampling method for all participants was voluntary response measures of parents: 5 closed-ended questions
-3 point Liakert scale
4 opened-ended questions Participants: Materials: Introduction: Parents' survey results Sports played by children as reported by parents: Girls: gymnastics, dancing, swimmings, soccer, basketball, horseback riding, golf, rugby Boys: soccer, basketball, gymnastics, bike riding, baseball, football, tennis, swimming Are there really differences? Trends indicate that: 1. Parents of both boys and girls are likely to encourage sports in physical activity. 2. Girls who are given opportunities to play with opposite sex-typed toys are more likely to play sports. 3. Boys who are given the opportunity to play with sex-typed toys are less likely to play sports. 4. Girls who exhibit traditional gender roles in imaginary play are more likely to also play with opposite sex-typed toys. 5. Boys who exhibit traditional gender roles in imaginary play are less likely to play with opposite sex-typed toys. 6. Children are equally likely to be dressed in gender-stereotyped clothing and colors. Parents influence gender stereotypes in relation to toys, occupation, and sport participation. ~Brustad, 1993 & Barak et. al., 1991 Girls are more interested in moderate level of activity sprorts where boys are more interested in highly active sports.
~Anderson et. al., 2009 Mothers influence gender stereotypes about occupation in both boys and girls more than the father's do.
~Barak et. al., 1991 Parents use toys to teach sex-typed roles.
~Raag et. al., 1998 Boys are more likely to think that their fathers would dissaprove of them playing with toys typed for females. However, it didn't matter, or was seen as good for girls to play with toys typed for boys. so... Children's Interview Results Like Parent, Like Child? Limitations: All participants were voluntary response, so there was not enough data to draw any significant conclusions. Preschoolers were uninterested in the questions. 13 of the preschoolers who were eligible for the study would not talk to us. The numerous other activities provided in the preschool for the children made them uninterested in our table. When they came over to ours, their attention wasn't held long. Of the 4 child participants, only 2 of them answered all parts of the survey. The 2 who didn't answer were uninterested in the questions, and only wanted to play with the provided toys. The only children eligible for the study were those whose parents returned a survey. Ultimately, it would have been better to open it to all of the children, and then compare those parents and children who both participated. Several children whose parents did not participate in the survey approaced our table and were interested in participating. Toy choices could have displayed bias. The doll provided was ethnic, however all of the participants were Caucasian. What the children want to be when they grow up, as reported by their parents: Girls: doctor (only one girl reported) Boys: Scientist, Athlete, Pilot, Doctor, Astronaut, Fireman Two of the girls reported playing sports:
dancing, and soccer. Pair 1:
Mother reported many different sports played, while son said no interest in sports.
Mother in traditonal female job (interior designer).
Son thought nurse was female, and doctor male (tradional) Pair 2:
Mother reported daughter's interst in dance, so did the daughter.
Daughter is relatively unbiased in gender picking for occupations. Her nurse was male, her doctor female. But, a female teacher and a male firefighter.
Mom is a physical therapist.
Dad is an orthodontist. Pair 3:
Daughter saw 4/6 professions to be bi-genderal.
Both parents are in higher education.
Strong preference was shown to the gender neutral ball.
Opposite sex-typed toys are often provided for her to play with. Pair 4:
No relative data. 7. Parents in commonly gender neutral occupations have children with less stereotyped views on professions than children of parents with gender sterotyped professions. There is not enough information to tell. Thank you!