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History of Psychology Assignment
Transcript of History of Psychology Assignment
began the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
Introduced INTROSPECTION as a primary method in experiments
Famous Students include Tichtner and J.M Catell Sigmund Freud 1880s-1930s Main contribution was founding of PSYCHOANALYSIS
Specifically, he investigated the subconscious of humans, including sexual desires
Categorized the brain into three parts: id, ego, and superego Karen Horney 1930s-1950s Developed Famous "Theory of Neurosis":
Irrational anxiety or neurosis is used as a coping method for lack of a necessity (love, warmth, companions)
REFUTED many of Freud's sexual analysis of women and "penis envy"
Instead, inspired many to look into Women's Psychology
Findings developed belief in self-help and self psychology Jean Piaget 1930s-1980s START Greatest contribution: Theory of Epistemology
studied human growth stages and intelligence development
Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yrs)
Preoperational Stage (2yrs-6/7yrs)
Concrete Operational Stage (6/7yrs-11/12yrs)
Formal Operational Stage (beyong 11/12 yrs)
Believed knowledge comes in forms of adaptation (assimilation and accommodation) of new ideas within created schemas (organized information) Erik Erikson 1940s-1990 Further developed psychoanalysis
Psychosocial Development (impact of social experiences throughout lifetime) consisted eight stages unlike Freud's five
Focused on the social development throughout life
Like Piaget, emphasized the importance of child development G. Stanley Hall 1880s-1920s Founded the First American Psychology Lab in the United States
First American to earn PhD in Psychology
First President of the APA
Foresaw and established the growth of Psychology, granting several PhD's to his contemporary Psychologists Stanley Milgram 1950s-1970s Most famous for his Obedience Experiment
Using a staged shocking device, he found how much people would go to obey orders
Obedience heavily determined by peers as well as internal forces like ethics
Also rose to question the ethical treatment of people in experiments Albert Bandura 1950s-Now Known for his Social Learning Theory:
How people learn new information by observing and imitating
Famous Expirement: Bobbo Doll
Children watched a clip of a doll being beaten, then replicated it
Arguably a behaviorist, however, he thinks more of himself studying cognitive psychology Elizabeth Loftus 1970s-Now Most noted for her research in memory
"False Memory Phenomenon"
ability to from false memories especially under suggestions
Her discoveries have led her to testify over 200 cases to denounce memory accuracy Judith Rodin NOW 1970s-Now Studies environment vs control over individual
Most recent findings include link between obesity and environment
First women to hold a high position at an Ivy League institution