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Kinesics in Academic Lectures
Transcript of Kinesics in Academic Lectures
GIL, EUGENIA MARÍA
HUESA MARTÍN, ANNA
MARTÍNEZ VALERO, JOAN JOSEP Usos Professionals i Acadèmics
de la Llengua Anglesa ANALYSIS OF A RESEARCH ARTICLE TEACHER: SÒNIA OLIVER
UAB - 4rt CURS - MENCIÓ
13th of DECEMBER 2012 THE ARTICLE Some information: Author: Susan Lewis English She joined Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) in 1993
She was the Welsh Representative to the European Women’s Lobby Degree in English Language and Literature from Kings College, London and an MA in Education ESP Journal, v4 n2 p161-70 1985 It describes a study which investigated the effect of training in nonverbal and verbal cue identification on notetaking and listening comprehension by 100 Chinese graduate students. The paper also provides a model for future materials development, teaching methodology, testing, and research in this area. (Author) Who is writing the article? What audience is the author addressing? Higher Education. It is revealed by the kind of publication in which the article appeared What is the article about? What sources does the author use? Why? How? An attractive title Short sentence
Clear, concise, precise and concrete
Introducing the reader on the topic "The science of body behavioural communication" Nonverbal communication makes up more than
80% of the message we transmit A channel to take into account as future teachers A native author
The general structure of the article (according to Swales)
The formal register (vocabulary, connectors...) It fits on our choice Birdwhistell Kinesics: By doing the analysis of: The abstract The whole article Macrotextual features
Microtextual features Macrotextual features
Microtextual features Grading the article
Taking into account some improvements
Getting conclusions THE ABSTRACT Main features Length: 133 words.
19 words per sentence. Sentences might be a bit too long for an abstract. It clearly follows the IMRAD moves Moves
The CARS model on the abstract Make it more visual Microtextual structure Macrotextual structure Nominalizations / Linkers / Hedges / Boosters Verbs Academic writing - avoids personal pronouns. No personal pronouns on the abstract. - uses some specialized vocabulary - uses impersonal pronouns and phrases - does not use any phrasal verb. No phrasal verbs on the abstract. - avoids contractions. No contractions on the abstract.
It might be because of the year of publication (1985). The genre did not have established the general rules.
Today we find keywords in almost every RA. No Key words ! In fact and at the end ... BUT… It accomplishes the task of attracting the interest of the reader.
It follows the patterns (IMRAD and CARS).
It gives a whole overview of the article.
It uses plenty of grammatical resources.
It is not long.
It uses epistemic verbs.
There are no key words... + THE ARTICLE Macrotextual features
Information about the author
Appendix A, B & C Structure: - The article has 10 pages
- The article presents IMRAD pattern (sections): So, at first sight, we expect the article to be: well structured (each part containing only the corresponding information)
easy to read (guided and sequenced)
clear and understandable (despite the use of specialised vocabulary) Introduction Methods + - A good description of the:
- Subjects: 100 chemistry and biochemistry students...
- 3 groups:
- treatment groups X &Y
- control group Z
- 6 classes (50’)
- alternated rooms and instructors
- homework: observing & collecting
- 3 weeks
- ½ X & Y group Form A room A
- ½ group Form B room B
- reversed Forms and groups - We miss a graphic or other schematic way of showing the arrangement of SS and treatment (it would be more understandable)
- We miss a description of the mentioned Forms A and B
- We miss references about how data were collected and analyzed Information about materials used:
- 4 videotaped lectures (8-12 min)
- female English speaker
- 2 videotaped lectures
- 2 males
- 1 English speaker
- 1 Chinese Mandarin speaker Material + - Information that are not related with materials used:
- explanations about methodology
- the author first analizes...
- the lessons were sequenced...
- students were asked to...
- practical definitions
- “verbal cues were defined as words or short phrases…” Testing + - A description of each of the 4 tests used to collect the data (all of them designed by the author):
- Listening Comprehension
- Watching for Functions
- Listening for Functions
- A brief description of procedures for the application of the tests - We miss well-founded reasons to use those tests
- We miss a more deep explanation of the procedures
- We miss a justification for time management during the tests - Results + - - Incorrectly located:
- Explanations about the statistical analysis carried on with data
- Weakly justified:
- “At the conclusion of the study, feedback elicited from subjects (…)
revealed that contamination between groups may have been a factor”. Weak
- First person is used once making it colloquial in - comparison with all the introduction text.
- The last paragraphs are too similar to a conclusion. Strength
A. Establishing a territory
- Reader gets the author’s interest for the subject
- Accurate definition of the Kinesics concept
- Summary of the relevant literature (theoretical framework)
- Prior work addressing this topic is mentioned
B. Establishing a niche
- Explaining the needs in this field for justifying the research.
- Indicating the gap, Kinesics in lecturer comprehension
- Raising the question
C. Occupying a niche
- Presenting the research and advancing results
- Closing with a brief description of the structure article It follows CARS model Discussion - It is proposed as a discussion
- It establishes a relation between the framework and the results
- It ends with a one-sentence summary of the more relevant conclusion + - It raises more questions than answers: further research will be required - The author recognizes the limitations of her study in finding answers to the initial questions:
This study demonstrates that students can be trained to identify the functions of nonverbal cues in a lecture context, but it leaves unanswered the question of the effect of training on listening and note-taking skills Microtextual features Microstructure of the whole article A comparison: Microstructure of the discussion Detail of hedging: Grading the article with a 1-5 scale How would we improve the article? Reorganizing paragraphs in order to respect the IMRAD pattern would facilitate the reading and the comprehension of the different parts of the study
Using more connectors and linkers would provide more guide to the reader making the article more clear
Respecting conventions about the use of the first person would improve the formality of the paper
Using some graphic language would facilitate interpretation of the subjects' arrangement
Providing more details about data analysis and about the procedure would help possible further researchers The analysis of the article did not allow us to confirm their suitability for the task. It showed, in fact, many weaknesses. This made us reach the following conclusions: Our conclusion
- Nowadays journals specification and requirement for the articles to be published (on the structure, length, grammar correction, significance of the subject, relevance of results…) have the aim to present to the audience only quality material written by qualified people and that provides interesting and useful information.
- After checking that no many researchers have followed the article (it has only been cited once) we assume that it has not been relevant for audience and other authors. The reason could not be the topic but the research itself (it did not get an answer to the main question)
- The more demanding the journal is, the most trusted and reliably the papers are. Hedges from the discussion section: AGENTLESS STRATEGIES - PASSIVE VOICE:
- Further research will be required to identify, classify and quantify more defininitively the nonverbal cues of academic lectures.
- Nonverbal cues were found to be more dense in the videotapes...
- ..., frequent absence of a witten outline, ...
- ..., while American lectures provide fewer repetitions but more visual information.
Illustrators, which give a visual image of what is being said, may be of particular importance to nonnative listeners because they provide a visual redundancy for words they might not comprehend aurally. In order to develop instructional materials and tests, the author first analyzed the four videotapes (…). Next the audio track (…) was analyzed for verbal discourse markers (…). Finally, transcripts of the lectures were analyzed (…), and this too was added to the list. A summary of some of the more (…) HEDGING
SHIELD - BOOSTING
“... American speaker and to determine whether this training would positively affect
the subjects' academic listening and note-taking skills".
AGENTLESS STRATEGIES - PASSIVE VOICE
“It was conducted to investigate whether nonnative listeners could be taught to identify the functions of either nonverbal or verbal cues in the videotaped lectures of one American speaker.”
AGENTLESS STRATEGIES - NOMINALIZATION
“The focus of that research was more on speaking than
listening, often concerned with the control and exploitation of nonverbal cues…” Examples from the introduction section: Linkers from material section: THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !!! - Some statements:
- No meaningful differences between groups found in the first step
- Lack of conclusive data
- Analysis must be confined to descriptive and evaluative factors
- A table:
- Table 1 means & SD for each group on Test Battery The author: The information which is the author looking at to develop the article is related at the end of the paper, at references section.
Some of these sources are regarded along the article.