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Telomere Presentation

Biology 133
by

Yubi Ventura

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of Telomere Presentation

Like the plastic part of your shoe laces! Telomeres DNA segments at the end of chromosomes
They tally the number of replicative generations when they initiate senescence and crisis
They circumscribe the ability of cell population to expand They are like what? What are "Telomeres"? They are like the plastic tips on shoelaces! Enzyme: Telomerase Telomerase cont. What role do telomeres play in cancer? When cell becomes cancerous it begins to divide more often and telomeres become short activating telomerase
Studies have found shortened telomeres in cancers including: pancreatic, bone, prostate, bladder, lung, kidney, head and neck
If scientist can learn how to stop telomerase they might be able to fight cancer by making cancer cells age and die
In one experiment, researchers blocked telomerase activity in human breast cancer cells growing in the lab, which made tumor cells die.
*There are risks! Blocking telomerase could impair fertility, wound healing, and production of blood cells and immune system cells Achilles' Heel Cells expressing telomerase Telomeres "cap off" the chromosomal ends from damage In most human cells, telomeres shorten a bit everytime chromosomes replicate during S phase of cell cycle
When they shrink below some threshold they sound an alarm that instructs cell to enter senescence
If cell bypasses senescence telomeres continue to shrink
If they continue to shrink chromosomes would fuse together or break apart This enzyme is mostly absent from healthy cell types but present in almost all tumor cells

It systematically replaces telomeric segments that were trimmed away during each cell cycle

This enables cells to replicate endlessly:
1) Allows tumors to grow large
2) Gives precancerous or already cancerous cells time to accumulate mutations that will increase their ability to replicate, invade & metastasize Dependence on ONE enzyme can be an Achilles' heel

If telomerase could be blocked in cancer cells, their telomeres would once again shrink when they divide leading to cell crisis & death

Pharmaceutical firms are attempting to develop drugs that target telomerase learn.genetic.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/telomeres/ www.drdavesbest.com www.hitohi.com http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=telomeres-telomerase-and&page=4 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867400807618 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0092867400807618 en.wikipedia.org articles.mercola.com http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v19/n1/full/nm0113-6.html?WT.ec_id=NM-201301 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v413/n6854/fig_tab/413370a0_F1.html http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/telomere http://www.quickmeme.com/meme/3534jq/
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