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The PICO Venn diagram

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by

Dominic Hurst

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of The PICO Venn diagram

O
C
I
P
PICO & Search...
Studies with the
Population / problem
+ Intervention / Exposure + comparison
+ outcome

we are interested in
Studies that include the
Population / problem / patient
that we are interested in - a root-filled molar
Studies that include the
Intervention / Exposure
we are interested in - a crown
Studies with the
Outcome
we are interested in - whether fewer teeth are extracted
Studies with the
Comparison / control
we are interested in - plastic restorations
Studies with the
Population / problem + Comparison
we are interested in
Studies with the
Intervention / Exposure + outcome
we are interested in
Studies with the
Population / problem + Intervention / Exposure
we are interested in
Studies with the
Comparison + outcome
we are interested in
Studies with the
P, I and O
Studies with the
P, C and O
Let's say we want to know if there's a trial that will help us in deciding whether we should put crowns on molars that have been root-filled, or whether we should leave them with simple composite or amalgam restorations.
How does using the PICO question structure help find studies?
This Venn diagram is my representation of how the concepts of PICO can be combined to identify research reports that may include anything from one to all four concepts.

When searching for papers we combine keywords and MeSH terms around the same concept using 'OR'. Having done that we then combine the different searches around the concepts using 'AND'.
Keywords and MeSH terms around root-canal treatment of molars combined using 'OR'
Keywords and MeSH terms around dental crown / onlay / cuspal coverage combined using 'OR'
Keywords and MeSH terms for direct restorations / composite / amalgam combined using 'OR'.
You may not search using the 'Outcome' terms as often there are many terms used for reporting failure / success but the papers you select will be those that include the outcome of interest - in this case tooth loss
So these papers are those that include root-filled molars that may be crowned but do not include root-filled molars that have not been crowned as a comparison.
These studies include root-filled molars that have had direct restorations placed but no crowns as comparison and not tooth loss as an outcome.
These papers include teeth that may have been restored with a direct restoration and have been extracted but do not include teeth that have been root-filled or that have been crowned
These studies include root-filled molars that have been restored with direct restorations and may report on the number ultimately extracted but do not include the crowned molars as comparison
And these are the studies that could compare root-filled molars that are restored directly with those restored using a crown and with the outcome we are interested in - the number that are ultimately extracted.

Here all the PICO concepts are reported in the papers retrieved.
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