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Transcript of Leadership
is to make sure that the work of the institution gets
accomplished as effectively and efficiently as
possible. --"Administration is seeing to it that the chalk is there."
--Jacques Barzun, Provost
Columbia University LEADERSHIP taking the organization
or some part of it in
a new direction solving problems being creative initiating new programs building organizational structures improving quality Classic Views & Authors Rosabeth Moss Kanter Michael Hammer & James Champy Joseph C. Rost James Kouzes & Barry Posner A classic view of leadership which
relates it to power and position.
Leadership is "the existence of people
with power to mobilize others and set
constraints." authors of Re-engineering the Corporation.
"not as someone who makes other people do what he or she
wants, but as someone who makes them want what he or she wants.
A leader doesn't coerce people into change they resist. A leader
articulates a vision and persuades people that they want to become
part of it, so that they willingly, even enthusiastically, accept the
distress that accompanies its realization." suggests that leadership is:
"relationship of influence" that is "multi-directional and non-coercive"; that "active followers" are an important
part of that relationship; that leaders and followers develop "mutual purposes"; that they "intend to make (even if they do not always
actually make) "real changes" and "substantive transformations."
de-emphasizes notions of hierarchy & subordination
diminishes importance of formal position
stresses the idea of transformation Look at what leaders actually do.
Kouzes & Posner have identified the following behaviors
in the best leaders, they are at their best when they are:
challenging the process
inspiring a shared vision
enabling others to act
modeling the way
encouraging the heart Although people differ sharply in their views of leadership, when leadership is compared to administration, it appears to be distinguished by its association with change, with moving the organization and its people forward in some positive way. (Davis, 2003) REFLECTION
As you think of your natural propensities, do you tend to be somewhat better at administration or at leadership? What feedback do you get about your abilities as leader and administrator? Can you identify people around you in the organization who are clearly stronger in one area than the other? Do you know people who are already outstanding at both? How would you define leadership? Sometimes leadership is harder to define than to find examples for. REFLECTION
Examine your niche in the institution. What are the formal aspects of your leadership position? How are you expected to provide leadership? If you are not a formal leader, what unexpected leadership opportunities sometimes appear around you? To what extent are new ideas welcome at your institution? Are they rewarded? What factors support or inhibit institution-wide leadership? Theories & Models of Leadership
(as categorized by Bensimon, Neumann, and Birnbaum) trait theories
power and influence theories
cultural and symbolic theories, and
cognitive theories Traits (certain qualities held by leaders)
decisieness Power & Influence (way in which leaders use formal & informal power to influence followers)
reciprocal & dynamic, a kind of quid pro quo (labeled transactional)
sometimes leaders go beyond simply basic expectations and inspire additional effort, confidence, and involvement (labeled transformational) Behavioral (what do leaders do?)
balance of autocratic and democratic styles
degree of task orientation and people orientation
various roles leaders assume Contingency (depends on context or situation)
leaders effective in one situation, not necessarily good in another
different situations place different demands on leaders and require different skills Cultural and Symbolic (leaders assist in creation of shared meanings for the organization through ceremonies, rituals, and public communications)
"management of meaning"
"matter of reflecting the institutions' culture" Cognitive (arises from social cognition of organizations and involves "constructions of meanings that help participants to believe in the effectiveness of individual control.")
tend to "deconstruct" the explicit activities of leaders
leadership is reduced to an act that exists as each individual understands it REFLECTION
To what extent are these theories useful for viewing the activities of leaders in your institution? Are these valuable lenses? Is there any way to organize or coordinate these theories? REFLECTION
In your own work, whatever your niche in the organization, how do you sometimes play the role of leader while at other times playing the role of follower? Do traditional ideas about leaders and followers need to be reconsidered? Are you more of a leader or a follower? Is that even a meaningful question? Leaders & Followers The term follower sometimes carries negative connotations.
Ira Chaleff (2009), in his book The Courageous Follower: Standing Up to and for Our Leaders, talks about the triad of an organization, its leaders, followers, and the purpose around which they both revolve. Chaleff posits that there are five types of courage a follower needs to demonstrate:
the courage to assume responsibility
the courage to serve
the courage to challenge
the courage to participate in transformation
the courage to leave Charismatic Leadership Servant Leadership an individual in a top role who seems to have
extraordinary vision and is able to enlist large
numbers of loyal followers
Charismatic has roots in ancient greek meaning gift (in particular a gift from the gods)
According to sociologist Max Weber, charismatic leaders have an abundance of the following characteristics:
ability to see the big picture
communicate ideas well
can lay out a vision and model it
lack in internal conflict REFLECTION
Can you provide examples of charismatic leadership in your institution or other campuses where you have worked or studied? What are your reservations about charismatic leadership? The idea of servant leadership often identified with writing of Robert Greenleaf and his 1970 essay, "The Servant as Leader."
In that essay Greenleaf cites Hermann Hesse's Journey to the East as one of the inspirations for his concept of servant-leadership. In this story, a band of men on a mythical journey is accompanied by the servant Leo who "does their menial chores" and "sustains them with his spirit and song." All is going well until Leo disappears and the group falls into disarray. The narrator, after years of searching, finally locates Leo whom he had first known as the servant. Leo is actually the great and noble leader of an official order.
effective leaders appear first as servants
the essence of leadership is service REFLECTION
What are your own beliefs about leadership? Can you craft a practical definition? What components of such a definition are you certain you do not want to omit? Will your ideas about leadership work better in some settings than in others? Have your observed convincing examples of leadership? all information and language in this presentation is attributable to James R. Davis, from his 2003 publication, Learning to Lead: a Handbook for Postsecondary Administrators, published by ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education.
Chaleff, I. (2009). The courageous follower: Standing up to & for our leaders. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.