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Copy of The Protestant Reformation & Scientific Revolution

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Rodney Woods

on 25 May 2015

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Transcript of Copy of The Protestant Reformation & Scientific Revolution

The Protestant Reformation & Scientific Revolution
During the late Middle Ages, Christians in society accused the Church of becoming corrupt- why?

The Pope and churches needed a way to finance projects- incr. fees for marriages and baptisms

In 1517
Johann Tetzel
preached outside of Wittenberg, Germany that any Christian who donated money to the Church would be assured entry to heaven, in addition to their dead relatives

This was an
- A lessening of the time a soul would spend in purgatory for sins

Martin Luther, a German Monk & professor had enough...
The Protestant Reformation
95 'argument's against indulgences' posted on church door

(1) Indulgences had no basis in the Bible
(2) Pope had no authority to issue indulgences
(3) Salvation achieved through faith alone (NOT WORKS)
(4) Bible as sole source of religious truth, (he translated it into the
- language spoken by local people
(5) Focused mass on the sermon instead of ritual
(6) Rejected sacraments not found in Bible

Luther refused to
, or give up his views and was excommunicated by the Pope- his books were burned

'Protestant' became known as the group protesting the Catholic Church, with 'Lutherans' known as the followers of Luther's teachings

Teachings spread fast due to the printing press!!!
Martin Luther's '95 Theses'
John Calvin
was influenced by Luther and broke off from the Catholic Church as well and created Calvinism

Lutherans believe that Christ is present during the Eucharist physically, while Calvinists believe it is symbolic, but BOTH are Protestant (other differences)

They believed God long ago had determined who would gain salvation because of faith

Close to the concept of
- The belief that all events have been willed by God. Catholics believe free will plays a part in this!

John Calvin
The Scientific Revolution
Change in the way one thinks about the physical world using bservation and experimentation, known as the Scientific Method

Until this, Philosophy, Science, Theology the SAME

Nicolaus Copernicus-
Polish scholar that proposed a heliocentric model of the universe (opposite of Greeks!)

Johannes Kepler-
German astronomer that proved planets revolve around the sun in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse (Copernicus thought it to be a perfect circle)

Galileo Galilei-
Italian astronomer who used a telescope to see that the moons of Jupiter revolve around it, just as we revolve around the sun, confirming Copernicus' theory.

In 1633, he was threatened with death but took back his views and lived under house arrest

Isaac Newton-
Developed many laws that were based off of Kepler's theories, including the belief that a moving object won’t change speed or direction, nor will a still object start moving, unless some outside force acts on it -> Why the earth spins!

He also concluded that a single force keeps the planets in their orbit around the sun, which exerts a constant pull on our planet and bends Earth’s path toward the sun. Helped predict tides! GRAVITY

William Harvey-
Described circulation and the role of the heart as a pump

"If I have seen further than others it is by standing on the shoulders of giants"

- Sir Isaac Newton

(1) Do you think you have the ability to completely control your decisions (free will) or do you believe in destiny (fate) regardless of your decisions?

'English Reformation' assignment- Questions are on Launchpad and/or PowerSchool

Please write or type answers in complete sentences- due next class

'The Scientific Revolution and Age of Discovery' Warm-Up Exercise

(1) What are 2 questions you want answered about the scientific world you live in? What are you curious about?

(2) Why does the earth spin? How many times during a year does the earth spin? Go around the sun? Go around the moon? Why do we have a leap year?

(3) If I stand on my desk and drop a book and sticky notes to the floor, what will be the result? Why?
Other Contributions
Galileo predicted that objects falling through the same medium would fall at the same speed regardless of their masses. This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: That heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight

Which one was right?
In your rows, come up with 5 modern-day examples of people who, as Newton said, have 'Stood on the Shoulders of Giants', (Building off previous ideas to take them further)

You can use as many connections as you want, but it is only 1 example

EXAMPLE: Copernicus- Kepler- Galileo- Newton
Make a list of 10 things you are upset or frustrated about with society today and the changes you want to see made- pick issues you are passionate about!!!
Warm-Up Exercise
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