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Transcript of Poultry Science
Most operations in the United States are produced in larger commercial operations.
Three types of chicken enterprises are egg production(layers), broiler production(meat), or replacement pullets.
Vertical integration is a key feature in the poultry industry. This means that two or more steps of production, marketing, and processing are linked together. Objectives 1. Describe the nature of the poultry industry.
2. Identify common breeds of poultry.
3. Explain the selection of poultry for production. Laughed today? Trends in Egg Production and Consumption The average number of laying hen farms decreased until the late 1980s and began increasing.
The number of farms with laying hens decreased, while the average size of flock per farm has increased.
Numbers are increasing because of an increase in the number of laying hens and rate of egg production per hen.
Consumption of eggs per person has declined since 1970, but today it is increasing. The long term decline is probably due to concerns about high cholesterol in eggs. Trends in Broiler Production and Consumption Broiler production has more than quadrupled since 1970.
The per person consumption has been increasing also with consumers buying more poultry meat because it has lower cholesterol that pork and beef.
Since 1970, turkey numbers and live weight produced has been upward. Consumers chose turkey meat as a healthier alternative.
About 10 million ducks are raised annually in the the Midwest, mainly Indiana.
About 1 million geese are raised annually in the US. Raising Poultry high feed efficiency
fast return on investment
spreading income throughout the year
high return compared to feed costs
low land requirements
adaptability to small and large scale farms
highly mechanized, with high output per hour of labor Poultry: domesticated birds kept by humans for eggs, meat, and/or feathers Poultry Science serious problems with diseases and parasites
need for high level of management
large amounts of capital
death losses may be high due to predators
quality of product must be controlled carefully
careful marketing required
problems with waste disposal and odor Advantages Disadvantages Poultry Terminology Breed: a group of related fowls that breed true to a number of given traits
Type: the purpose for which the poultry are bred (egg or meat)
Class: the geographic origin of poultry (Mediterranean, American, English, Asiatic) Chicken Terminology Bantam: a small breed of chicken that’s generally one-fourth the size of a regular chicken
Broiler: a chicken raised for meat
Broody hen: a hen that stops laying eggs when her ‘maternal’ instincts kick in. When this happens, she’ll sit on a clutch of eggs, waiting for them to hatch.
Capon: a male chicken that’s been castrated
Chick: baby chicken
Clutch: a group of eggs that are laid together (often being sat on by a broody hen)
Hen: a female chicken that is at least one year old
Layer: a chicken raised to lay eggs
Pullet: an adolescent female chicken
Rooster: an adult male chicken Turkey Terms Hen: a female turkey
Poult: a baby turkey
Tom/Gobbler: a male turkey Poultry Terminology Duck Terms Hen: a female duck
Duckling: a baby duck
Drake: a male duck Geese Terms Goose: a female
Gosling: a baby goose
Gander: a male goose