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Samantha Chang

on 10 May 2013

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2012 AP Government FRQ Question 2 Question 3 Question 1 1. Members of Congress are charged with three primary duties --writing laws, overseeing the implementation of laws, and serving the needs of their constituents.
a) Describe the role of each of the following in law making.
- Senate filibuster
- House Rule Committee
- Conference
b) Describe one method by which Congress exercises oversight of the federal bureaucracy.
c) Explain how casework affects members' attention to legislation. 2. a) Using the chart above, compare minority representation in 1960 and 2010.
b) Explain how each of the following assisted in the removal of barriers to minority voting.
- Voting Rights Act of 1965
- Twenty-fourth Amendment
c) Identify one barrier that currently impedes minority representation in Congress. The judicial branch is often assumed to be insulated from politics. However, politics affects many aspects of the
(a) Describe two political factors that affect presidents’ decisions to appoint members of the federal judiciary.
(b) Identify two political factors that affect the confirmation process of a president’s nominees and explain how each factor complicates a confirmation.
(c) Explain how one legislative power serves as a check on court decisions.
(d) Explain how one executive power serves as a check on court decisions. Samantha Chang
Lydiaa Chun
Vivian Tian
AP Macroeconomics - Period 4 a) Senate filibuster allows a senator on the floor to:
- Prevent/delay action on a particular bill
- Prevent/delay other business from being conducted
Rules of Committee schedules or manages the flow of legislation on the floor to
- Make it easier or more difficult for a bill to pass
- Make the process more efficient/orderly/manageable
Conference Committee reconciles differences in House and Senate versions of a bill.
b) Congress exercises oversight of bureaucracy as it continues its spending. In this manner, Congress has the necessary control over the federal bureaucracy to have influence on the productivity, projects, and ultimately the existence of a bureaucracy.
c) Casework affects members' attention to legislation by diverting time, resources, and staff, thus reducing members' ability to focus on legislation. Casework also develops awareness of problems, thus focusing more time and resources on related legislation. a) In 1960, although 16.6% of the population was Hispanic or African-American, only .2% of House members were less than 2% of full representation, whereas in 2010, 27.6% of the population was Hispanic of African-American and 16.1% of House members were more than 50%.
b) Voting Rights Act of 1965 assisted in the removal of barriers to minority voting by
- Eliminating voter registration requirements that prevented minorities from voting led to increased access for minority voters
- Creating federal oversight of elections helped eliminate discriminatory mechanisms that were used to prevent minority voters from voting, which led to increased access for minority voters
- Eliminating the use of English-only ballots that prevented non-English-speaking minorities from voting led to increased access for minority voters.
c) One barrier that impedes minority members to be elected in Congress is the fact that there are less minority college graduates. Most voters would not even consider electing someone to Congress who is not a college graduate. Question 4 4. Interest groups seek to influence political processes in ways that benefit their members. In doing so, however, they may not act in the overall public interest.
(a) Describe two techniques interest groups use to influence elections.
(b) Explain how interest groups use each of the following to influence government decision making.
• Issue networks (also known as iron triangles)
• Amicus curiae briefs
(c) Explain how each of the following serves to limit interest group influence.
• The media
• Pluralism a) Some factors that might affect a president's decision for federal judiciaries include:
campaign promises
geographic diversity
home-state senator (if lower courts)
interest group input
issue positions
potential for confirmation success
professional background, experience, education
b) Some political factors that complicates the confirmation process
for presidential nominees include:
advice and consent
campaign promises
geographic diversity
home-state senator (if lower courts)
interest group input
issue positions
the media (televising Judiciary Committee hearings)
professional background, experience, education
safe/weak nominee
senatorial courtesy
c) The legislative branch can check the courts through the use of:
amendments/legislation - create laws that can undo Court decisions
confirmation - must approve appointed judiciaries
congressional funding
impeachment - impeachment power of the House and the impeachment trials in the Senate
jurisdiction stripping - may alter the size of the Supreme Court
d) The executive branch can check the courts through the use of:
power of appointment -The president of the United States has the power to nominate, or appoint, people to serve as judges on the Supreme Court and lower federal courts. This power comes from Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution.
executive enforcement - who else will ensure that the Supreme Court decisions are carried out throughout the nation? a) Interest groups can influence elections by:
campaign contributions
candidate ratings - inform public on a certain candidate's stand on issues
funneling volunteers to campaigns
GOTV efforts
independent expenditures
issue ads
PACs (no double dipping PACs and super PACs)
providing information on issue and candidates - let candidates know how the public feels about issues and which approach to take => help their image
b) Interest groups influence government decision making by
-Interest groups participate in issue networks (Iron Triangles by providing money, information, and resources in hopes of obtaining political support from Congress, the bureaucracy, or the White House.
-Interest groups use amicus briefs ("polite lobbying") to inform the Court in hopes of influencing the acceptance of cases, Court reasoning, or decisions.

c) Media and pluralism limit the influence of interest groups because
-Media can act as a gatekeeper of information or a watchdog of interest group behavior to limit interest group influence
-Pluralism limits interest group influence because of the competition among a vast number of groups = no one group can become too powerful
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