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B-Survey Lecture

April 30, 2012

joe trotta

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of B-Survey Lecture

Representation as a process
What does the actual language use look like?
How does it reflect the ‘lifeworlds’ of the language users depicted?
What influence does the language have on the way we make sense of the text?
How does it affect our view or interpretation of the individuals/group that is depicted?
How does the ‘represented’ language affect actual usage?
What choices are made in the way language is depicted?
What part does the language play in text production?
What are the practices and conventions that affect text production?
How does audience design fit into the picture?
B-Linguistic Survey Course:
Joe Trotta
Gothenburg University

Standard vs Non-standard English
Notes and (final?) remarks
Dialect, Style & Register
Taken together, ‘play’ and ‘game’ constitute a powerful linguistic icon. Every game in the social universe has its clearly defined rules of play. Conceptualizing reality and life as a game is a framework that fixes things, puts structure and system in place, gives one the comfort of order in a random, disorderly world... (Smitherman 2006: 68)

The Media and Popular Culture are everywhere; most of us exposed to it on a daily basis and we could not avoid it even if we tried.
In EFL countries (like Sweden), ‘passive’ English language situations like watching TV, listening to music, using the internet, etc, are generally the most common form of contact with English.
In many EFL countries, students connect with English because it relates to their subcultural identities and interests.
EFL students need to better understand 'appropriateness' as well as the cultural, contextual and situational factors that affect language choices.
Consider the following examples:

That is the man I was referring to.
I want to see who unfriended me on Facebook.
I can’t get no satisfaction.
He just don’t understand.
They sing real good.
Who did Sally punch?
It was the funnest shopping trip ever.
Prescriptive grammar: a set of rules and examples dealing with structure of a language, usually intended as an aid to the learning of that language. Prescriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. It often reflects some perceived ‘prestige’ dialect and has a certain social status.
Descriptive grammar: the systematic study & description of a language as it is actually used by native speakers and writers
Prescriptive vs
Descriptive Grammar

DIALECT: refers to a variety of a language that is characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Dialects may be based on geography or social variables like social class, age, ethnicity, etc.

Dialect vs. ACCENT?

"A language is a dialect with an army and navy."
STYLE deals with variations in formality
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Father is fatigued.
Dad is shattered.
The old man is knackered.
Dad is tired.
“Let me tell you what’s gonna happen here. The two of yous are climbing over that fence and shagging those plates. […] Then, one of yous stays with us while other goes out in the street and boosts another Saturn.”
”I’m all shook up”
”Love me tender”
The haters can't fuck with it
'Cause they mom and they sister and girl in love with it
Sound man holla black COME WITH IT
Spin the record 'till the record done spinnin’
Up top is you gettin’ up with it?
Dirty dirty is you gettin’ cronk with it?
Smokey smoke from coast to coast
Be careful our first draw be that overdose
Background &

English in

we don't need no education
"The game be the game."
"I eats me spinach."
"Me fail English? That's unpossible!"
"We've all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will eventually reproduce the entire works of Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the Internet, we know this is not true." -- Robert Wilensky
DUDe, i @M $0 to+allY 9oING +0 H4xoR j00R 8Ox0r!

PH34r Me, 1 PWN j00!

P4Ul $LuT5 4T 6T4
l50 lock lfg for enchant run, can summon, pst
I 1 der if you got that 1
I wrote 2 U B 4
I sailed in the R K D A,
And sent by L N Moore.
He says he loves U 2 X S,
U R virtuous and Y’s,
In X L N C U X L
All others in his i’s.
From An essay to Catherine Jay
by Charles Bombaugh(?), 1867(?)

Standard ----|-------|-----|---------|----------|----- Nonstandard
REGISTER deals with language variations conntected with topic matter.
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Diagnose with a stethescope.
The remitting bank must effect payment.
Endorse the affadavit.
Language &
the internet

We shape our tools and
thereafter our tools shape us.
-- Marshall McLuhan
”...to boldly go where no man has gone before"
Non-standard English (from ‘below’)
Yo, wassup, yo, yo, yo! What's poppin’, dawg? I'm-a give it to ya straight up like ya don't know what hit ya. You're work is THE shit! I can't live without it, yo. Damn, niggah. Ya got it goin’ for y’all!
"How do you do, Madame. I am extremely delighted to make your acquaintance. It would give me great pleasure if you would accept my invitation for a cup of tea, let's say, around five-ish?"
A very brief history of linguistic prescriptivism
The prescriptivist tradition is generally attributed to the grammarians of the 18th century, in particular, Robert Lowth, who published A Short Introduction to English Grammar in 1762.
You done ate what I has sent you?
Different from vs. different to
Classic grammar controversies
in English
Are there any Swedish loanwords in English?
English in non-English speaking countries: some questions
Detta är ett måste, Lasse är en läkare,
Starta upp, kolla in
kanoting, jogging, spinning, videos,
Ylva’s hundtrim, Jacob’s Café
Types of English Loans
possible exam questions
Types of loans & borrowings
Well established loan words
Other loans
Note that most native speakers speak more than one variant of English and can switch style based on appropriateness. Individual judgments and concepts of standardness exist on a continuum and can be fairly subjective.
In certain registers, of course, certain levels of formality are the convention but that doesn't mean that REGISTER and STYLE are the same thing.
Considering now, the concepts of dialect, accent, register, style, etc – what is meant by the term APPROPRIATENESS?
Geographical Variation
The family are on holiday (BrE) vs. The family is on vacation. (AmE)
Social/Regional Variation
He ran slow
He shoulda did that yesterday.
You coulda took more time.
We seen him do that.
Winston tastes good like a cigarette should.
Is you is, or is you ain’t my baby? Louis Jordan, 1944
You keep lyin' when you oughta be truthin'/You keep losing when you oughta not bet/You keep samin' when you oughta be a'changin' from ‘These Boots Are Made for Walking’, composed by Lee Hazelwood, performed by Nancy Sinatra in 1966
She Darked The Sun, Gene Clark, 1968
You Be Illin’, Run DMC, 1986
The female of the species is more deadlier than the male, Space, 1996
The use of Nonstandard English in Pop Lyrics could be accounted for by one or several of the following:
NSE from Popular music: some possible explanations
Formal Standard English
Some examples of NSE from Popular music
I can’t get no satisfaction: Satisfaction/The Rolling Stones
My baby don’t care: Ticket to Ride/The Beatles
No woman, no cry: No Woman, No Cry/Bob Marley & the Wailers
Watching the people get lairy/Is not very pretty I tell thee: I Predict a Riot/Kaiser Chiefs
If you love somebody, set them free: If you love somebody, set them free/Sting
Can you handle me the way I are?: The way I are/Timbaland
I’m so movin’ on: Since U been gone/Kelly Clarkson
I’d do anything for love, but I won’t do that: I’d Do Anything for Love/Meatloaf
…and the list could go on ad infinitum….
in Other Languages
Grammatical Variation
Prescriptive vs. Descriptive grammar
Standard vs. Nonstandard English
Basic concepts: Types of variation
Basic concepts: Dialect, Style, Register
English in non-English Speaking countries
Grammatical Variation
Standard English (from ‘above’)
English in Non-English Speaking Countries
Traditional difficulties (classic controversies) within English itself
So-called ‘poetic license’ (i.e. the rythyms, rhymes, etc of the lyrics)
Linguistic playfulness, creativity or rhetorical strategy
Style and/or register
Regional/social dialect
Linguistic Identity (which may be affiliated with certain social groups or with a general ‘rebellious’ identity)
Why do we borrow words from other languages?
Why so many from English?
Are there certain areas where borrowing is more likely?
When does an English word ‘become’ Swedish, French, German, Spanish, etc.?
Will English take over Swedish?
Lowth’s grammar was imitated and adapted in school grammars by Lindley Murray and others, and Murray’s grammar, in turn, became widely used in America. […] Murray’s approach also combined elements of the correctionist teaching method with aspects of moral education, helping to establish a tradition of promoting virtue, patriotism, and religion through grammar study. (cf Battistella 2005:47)
conservative in outlook, resistant to changes taking place in the language
used in official printed communication
the variety of English which carries most prestige within a country; the variety used by the powerful (e.g. in terms of social class, material success, political strength, popular acclaim, educational background, etc)
perpetuated in formal institutions like schools by those responsible for language education
codified in grammars, usage books, dictionaries and other written texts
applied primarily to written language and formal speech situations
The term ‘non-standard dialect’ could be used to describe any number of regional or social variants of English, in short it is any dialect that is not considered ‘standard’, eg Cockney, Brooklynese, Geordie, AAVE, Apalachian English, etc.
Get Got Got (BrE) vs. Get Got Gotten (AmE)
Dive Dived Dived (BrE) vs. Dive Dove Dived (AmE)
Did you eat yet? / Were you ever in London? (AmE)
I know him since my school days (IrE).
Some of us have been to New York years ago.
She is in Hospital (BrE) vs. She is in the Hospital (AmE)
I’m lovin’ it.
So what are you wanting from me?
He be sick. (AAVE)
He be’s at home. (IrE)
He does catch fish pretty. (Creole)
I didn’t have no dinner.
You ain’t seen nothing yet.
The most stupidiest thing I ever saw.
We shoulda left sooner.
They coulda done better.
This man what do own this. (English Southwest)
Wen ai did smaal tin woz chiyp. (Panamanian Creole)
They’re not left school yet. (IrE)
I’m gonna do that later.
It’s gonna rain soon.
He gonna do it. (AAVE)
When you are stood there, you can see the flames. (BrE)
I been cut the bread. (AAVE)
is typically:
Some differences in Verb Forms:
A weakening of the strict division between the Present Perfect and the Simple Past:
Concord with collective nouns:
Article Usage:
A wider range of uses of the Progressive:
Frequent use of double negatives:
A much more important role of habitual marking:
Multiple comparatives:
Adjective/Adverb distinction
A weakening of the division between the Past Tense forms and Past Participle forms:
'Be' as a perfect auxiliary:
'Do' as a tense and aspect marker:
Reduction of 'have' after auxiliaries:
Completive/perfective 'done':
'Was sit/stood' with progressive meaning:
Past tense marker 'BEEN':
The general use of 'gonna' as a future marker:
Me and Bill did that.
Jane is taller than me/I.
Who(m) did you see?
I can’t get no satisfaction.
Driving at night, cats can be difficult to see.
… to boldly go where no man has gone before …
Can/May I be excused?
The suffix -–wise
Hopefully, she got to school on time.
If a student has a problem, he/they should contact me.
There’s some books on my desk.
Neither of them was/were happy about it.
Careerwise, things don’t look very good.
Generic pronouns: he? They?
There’s + plural subject
Can vs. May
Neither + singular/plural verb
Hopefully: disjunct or manner adverbial?
Dangling particples
Split infinitives
'Like' vs. 'as' (or 'as if')
Double negatives
I vs. Me
Who vs. Whom

Explain the notion of “grammatical variation”. What are the basic types, or dimensions, of grammatical variation? Give clear examples of each type.

Discuss briefly the notions of “standard” versus “non-standard English” in relation to grammar. How does this relate to the idea of “correctness” Give examples from different fields, or types, of English to illustrate your points.

Explain and discuss what is meant by “English usage” and to what extent this is a troublesome issue from a linguistic point of view. Give examples of classic usage controversies in English grammar.
English influences other languages (especially Swedish) in many ways. Discuss the different types of English loans that can be encountered, i.e. direct loans, hybrid loans, pseudo loans, loan translations (calques) and construction loans. Briefly explain type and exemplify if possible.

To what extent, if any, are other languages (in particular Swedish) threatened by English? Why is there so much English rather than other languages? Discuss briefly. Give examples if possible.

In what types of language (e.g. spoken – written, different kinds of speakers, different subject fields, etc.) is English influence on other languages at its most obvious? Why is English used rather than other languages? Discuss briefly. If possible, give examples.
team, stroke, gym, fejs, tajt, sorry, fejka, shit, container, stretcha, cool, hit, mejla, etc.
--note also the different degrees of integration in terms of spelling, pronunciation, morphology, etc
--cf. Hybrid loans: drive-in bio; hårspray, flipperspel, and
pseudo loans: freestyle, smoking, pocketbok)
Mujkvara, hemsida, leva upp till, ha en bra dag, etc.
--(Cf. ‘sense loans’: detta är ditt huvudvärk, jag köper inte ditt argument, Iron Maiden äger!, Lady Gaga suger!, etc.)
Longtemps, pas voir. – Long time, no see.
Je vais driver downtown. – I'm going to drive downtown. (Je vais
aller conduire au centre-ville)
Je suis tired. – I am tired. (Je suis fatigué)
Je ne care pas. – I don't care. (Ça m'est égal OR Je m'en fiche)
J'agree. – I agree. (D'accord)
M'en va tanker mon char. (Québec) – I'll go fill up my car. (Je vai
faire le plein)
Some examples of Franglais are:
Beamer - (digital) projector
City - city centre, downtown, central business district origin
Dressman - male model
Drive-In - drive-through
Fitnessstudio - gym or fitness club
Handy - mobile phone or cell phone, for - due to its very practical dimensions - it "comes in handy".
Oldtimer - vintage or classic car, or aircraft. Also Youngtimer, relatively recent "Oldtimers".
Peeling - facial or body scrub
Shooting - photo shoot
Showmaster -TV-show host
Slip - briefs, knickers, panties
Smoking - dinner suit, tuxedo origin: the then less formal dress for events with smoking allowed
Streetworker - social worker
Double Action Waschgel
Vitalisierendes Peeling
Oil Control Waschgel
Neutrogena Visibly Clear Anti-Mitesser Peeling

Color Waschmittel instead of 'Farbwaschmittel' or 'Waschmittel für Farbiges'
aeróbica (ay-RO-bi-ka) -- dynamic female.
averaje (a-ve-RAH-je) -- average.
boila (BOY-lah) -- heating appliance, boiler.
carpeta (kar-PE-tah) -- carpet.
chopin (TCHO-peen) -- 1.Shopping center mall. 2. n., going shopping.
deiof (dey-OF) -- day off.
frizer (FREE-zer) -- refrigerator.
grocear (gro-SEAR) -- to acquire groceries.
lonche (LONCHE) -- 1. midday meal. 2. food served to guests at event.
marqueta (mar-ke-tah) -- supermarket.
pari (PA-ree) -- a party.
ruki (ROOH-kee) -- novice.
Some examples of Denglisch are:
Some examples of Spanglish are:
Direct Lexical Loans:
Loan Translations (aka calques):
Construction Loans:
Thanks for listening! It was great fun working with you - good luck on the test!
listen to Snoop Pearson
listen to Tony & the boys
listen to Mos Def
listen to a talk on internet culutre
not an academic presentation of dialects, but interesting nonetheless.
this commercial is so wrong on soooo many levels ... the main point for us is the grammar though...
Another shamelessly
(Lots of good refs at the end )
the most relevant points.
non-academic video...
.. but it
Geographical variation
Social/regional variation
A closer look at AAVE
Classic usage ’problems’
Note that this version of the lecture contains a number of embedded You Tube videos - these videos are not essential for the test;
they are simply there to provide more information, present examples or simply for fun!
... and don't forget netspeak's intentional typos:
... and so on ...
More examples from Popular music
capture some of
(Get ready to lower the volume.)
A very rapid shift from standard
English to something else...
So why English?
At the present moment, English is the unofficial Lingua Franca of Science, Technology, Economics, among others.
New inventions, trends, concepts are often first articulated in English - there can be a lag before these are translated into other languages
Much of the world-wide entertainment that we experience originates in English-speaking countries.
English has a great deal of symbolic capital, especially in countries like Sweden
When English is used in other languages in formal situations, it is usually because some professional registers lean heavily on English loanwords, especially in Science, Technology and Academia in general. English words can become part of the accepted vocabulary regardless of language.
Where is the influence
of English most obvious?
Because of its semiotic potential, English can be used as a marker of subcultural identity.
English often occurs in advertising - this can occur for a number of reasons, but often simply to be associated with English speaking cultures or to be provocative.
English is even more obvious in the informal language of young people - partly due to the symbolic captial of English, but also because of their constant exposure to informal English through TV, film, the internet, music, etc.
English loanwords can appear in other languages in both formal and informal situations though probably for different effects
There is a type of cultural 'closeness' between Sweden and the USA - think of historical emigration patterns, modern emigration for economic opportunity, etc.
Another shamelessly
(Lots of good refs at the end )
the most relevant points.
non-academic video...
.. but it
capture some of
(Get ready to lower the volume.)
Full transcript