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Morality and Integrity

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Marco Fong

on 12 November 2014

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Transcript of Morality and Integrity

Topic
Morality and Integrity
By: Cherry, Ivan , Mandy, Marco, Sun and Sylvana
Definition of Morality
Definition of Integrity
Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Cometence
Level II
Conventional
moral reasoning
Level I
Preconventional
moral reasoning
Stage 1:
Obedience &
punishment driven
Stage 2:
Self-interest driven
Stage 3:
Good intentions as
determined by social
consensus
Stage 4:
Authority and social order obedience driven
Stage 5:
Social contract
driven
Stage 6:
universal ethical
principles driven
Carol Gilligan
Worked with Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg

Criticized Kohlberg’s ideas about moral dilemmas which mirrored his own experiences and were biased against women.

Level III
Postconventional
moral reasoning
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care
Stage
Goal
Preconventional
Conventional
Postconventional
Goal is individual survival
Self sacrifice is goodness
Principle of nonviolence:
do not hurt others or self
Transition is from selfishness TO responsibility to others
Transition is from goodness TO truth that she is a person too
Level 1:
Orientation to Individual Survival
First transition:
Selfishness to Responsibility
connection and responsibility to others
Level 2:
Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
Reliance on others, social acceptance
Second Transition:
Goodness to Truth
questioning comparative value of self against others
Level 3:
Morality of Nonviolence
Heightened understanding of choice between own needs and care for others
do not harm others or self
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care
individual survival
Empirical Study 1
Aims and objectives
Hard working behaviors,one of the significant dimensions of work ethic, is among the most anticipated behaviors of employees working at all organizations.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber, an influential part of the sociology literature for just over 100 years, addressed questions related to the impact of religious values and culture on the advent and evolution of economic systems

Examine the influence of morality and religiosity on employees’ hardworking behaviors
Methodology
Randomly selected 715 people working in stanbul, Ankara and Kocaeli.

Contacted by the researchers personally and it was requested from them to complete the questionnaire form.

The questionnaire form and demographical questions contain questions on ethical behavior and personal traits of the respondents

All of the constructs were adopted and translated into Turkish from already existing scales in the literature; and all items were measured on a five point Likert-type scale (1 =strongly disagree and 5= strongly agree).
Demographic Information of the Participants
Descriptive Statistics, Correlations and Alpha Reliabilities of the Measures
Barnett, T. (2001). Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision Making: An Empirical Study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(5), p.1038-1057.


Target Group: third- and fourth-year university students

Research


Aim of Study:
To study the relationship between the 4 dimensions moral intensity and the ethical decision-making (EDM) process



Research

Morality is essential in the healthcare sector

We should not overcharge patients for our service.

The decision on who to treat.

Withholding services due to lack of funds.

Why morality is important to Physiotherapists?

Action Statements:

(A) An employee uses company property and services for personal use.

(B) A salesperson sells a more expensive product to a customer when a less expensive one would be better for the customer.

Research

Methodology:
A survey
2 short descriptions of actions that might occur in the working environment
A series of questions in the form of moral intensity, ethical judgment, and behavioral intention



Research

Research:
Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision Making

By Tim Barnett

Results:
Research

Recognize
Moral Issue

Form Behavioral Intent

Make Ethical Judgment

Research

Possibility
to engage in
unethical actions
Sensitivity to
potential
moral dilemma
Moral
intensity


Importance of Morality to Employees

Research

Rotated Component Matrix
Regression Analyses
This shows morality has a positive relationship with Hard working!!
Importance of morality
According to Miller, Woehr and Hudspeth [6], “hard work is a belief in the virtues of hard work”.
According to Lutfihak Alpkanc, hard work is the key to happiness and financial success.
If the individuals have higher moral value, they will be more likely to be more hard-working.
Hence, they will be more prompt to lead the team to success.
Understand Morality Better
Morality is not something far away from us.
Morality is not an idealistic set of action without any benefit.
Morality does not only affect self discipline, but also your working performance
Relationship to the theory
Related to the second stage and the third stage of Carol Gilligan’s theory
Instead of thinking of benefits, e.g.more relaxing lifestyle, of the individuals (stage1), they are trying to devote their time to work hard for the others.(stage2)
The social expectation is that workers or employers should work hard, but the individuals can still strike a balance between working hard and enjoying their lives (stage3)

Relationship to the physiotherapy students
Higher moral value --> More hard-working
Think twice before playing truancy
- Am I responsible enough for my study?
- Will I increase the workload of my groupmates if I
cannot understand part of the lesson?
Better academic performance
Understanding the knowledge more and familiarize with different disease --> easier to cure the patient

Critiques on the Study
Region
This study was undertaken in Turkey, where Islam religion is widespread.
Religiosity, culture, wealth are some control variables
Can repeat the study in different regions

Critiques on the Study
Number of Sample
Only 715 people are selected
Can repeat the study in larger scale , e.g. up to 100,000 people

Selection of Sample
The 715 people are randomly selected
Can repeat the study with proposed groups of people
e.g. 200 people with primary school educational
level
200 people with secondary school educational
level
200 people with tertiary or above educational
level
Avoid some groups of people to dominant the sample and affect the result.

Critiques on the Study
Empirical Study 2
Moral Intensity Dimensions

Seriousness of Consequence
: the level of damage a specific action causes
Social Consensus
: the level of social assentation that the particular act is morally wrong
Temporal Immediacy
: the length of time for the consequences of action to occur
Proximity
: the level of familiarity that the decision maker is with the victims

Social
Consensus
Seriousness of
Consequences
Judgment
Unethical
1
2
3
López, B. G., & López, R. G. (1998). The improvement of moral
development through an increase in reflection. A training
programme. Journal of Moral Education, 27(2), 225-241.


Le Cornu, A. (2009). Meaning, internalization, and externalization:
Toward a fuller understanding of the process of reflection and its role
in the construction of the self. Adult Education Quarterly.


Reference

Problem Solving Skill

1. Write down the problem
2. Current situation
3. What is needed to be changed?
4. Generate a number of solutions
5. Look through the influencing factors and vote
for best solution
6. Planning for next action

Le Cornu, A. (2009)

First level:
Focus on external information

Second level:
Deep learning-relate new ideas to previous knowledge

Third level:
Internalize the knowledge and lead to change



Three Forms of Reflection

Ways for Improving Moral Development

Reflection for improvement
Skill for reflectivity: design tailor-made treatment to patient
Sincere and patient to patient

As a physiotherapist,

López, B. G., & López, R. G. (1998).

Reflection

Development of Skills (reflectivity): attentional strategies, problem-solving procedures, self-control by using internal self speech
How to Achieve Internalization

Integration of virtues, values, attitude into one’s moral identity
Internalization

Acquire the skills
of reflectivity


Experience


Internalize
the experience


Evaluation
&
change


Moral development


How to improve morality?

1) Discuss controversial moral issue with friends

2) Do more group work

Social domain theory
Interactions with siblings provide children with opportunities to learn
both moral and immoral behavior
.

(Dunn, 1987)



Social domain theory

Because controversial children are more interpersonally skilled than other children, this finding was interpreted as demonstrating that
more socially skilled that more socially skilled children are more advanced in their moral maturity
.
(Sanderson & Siegal, 1988)

Interactions between friends provide an important context for a
developing understanding of self and others
through the opportunity for discourse about
inner states and emotions
, which may influence children’s
moral evaluation
.
(Dunn, 2000)

Social domain theory

how children actively distinguish moral from conventional behavior based in part on the
responses of parents, teachers, and peers
.

(Smetana, 1997)

Social domain theory
2 perspectives:
Internalization
(Grusec  Kochanska Kochanska, Askan, & Koenig, 1995)
Social domain theory
(Turiel, 1983; Smetana 2006)



Moral development
-Way to improve morality
Experience of
conflicts, negotiation and cooperation
may facilitate
moral development
(Piaget, 1932)

Conclusion & Reflection
1. Invariant Sequence: moral reasoning state remains the
same or moves up but generally not goes down
2. Hierarchy: lower stages of thinking is replaced by high
stages of thinking when they come into the moral
dilemmas
3. No matter what moral dilemmas they face, the moral
developing state remains the same

He also argued that each higher stage represents a more adequate form of moral reasoning than the lower stage

Slote M. (1992) From morality to Virtue New York: Oxford University press Kohlberg’s moral developing theory:

Stage 1 legal punishment
- It is justified only if it leads to a social good. -> Contingently efficacious

Harding C. G. (2010) Moral dilemmas and ethical reasoning New York & London: Transaction Publishers
Kohlberg’s experiment:
- Invite young adults to respond to various hypothetical cases such as Heinz’s dilemma

Heinz’s dilemma: a patient is dying and needs a drug to cure the disease, but he could not afford it, he asked you to steal the drug for him, would you steal it?
Conclusion & Reflection
1. There are universal features of all moral reasoning
it depends on an analysis of all stages of moral reasoning
challenged by:
- 7th stage may be present (not discuss here)
- no clear boundary between 5th and 6th stage(post conventional
moral reasoning)

2. the experiment supports a conclusion that post conventional moral reasoning is more adequate than the lower stages
hard to distinguish which type of thinkers are at the top and at the bottom
- not fair to say that the more selfish the moral reasoning, the
lower it lies on the stages because “both type of thinkers put
weight on their interests”
- One looks on self-interest, the other looks on the interests of
others => a regard of self

Premise of his experiment
References:
Barnett, T. (2001). Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical
Decision Making: An Empirical Study.
Journal of
AppliedSocial Psychology, 31
(5), p.1038-1057.

Gilligan, C. (1982).
In a different voice
. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press
.

Harding, C. (2010).
Moral dilemmas and ethical reasoning
.
New
Brunswick [N.J.]: Transaction Publishers.

Killen, M., & Smetana, J. (2006).
Handbook of moral
development
. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kohlberg, L., & Gilligan, C. (1971). The adolescent as a
philosopher: The discovery of the self in a postconventional
world.
Twelve to Sixteen: Early Adolescence, 100
(4).
1051-1086.



Le Cornu, A. (2009).
Meaning, internalization, and
externalization: Toward a fuller understanding of
the process of reflection and its role in the
construction of the self
.
Adult Education Quarterly.

López, B. G., & López, R. G. (1998). The
improvement of moral development through an
increase in reflection.
A training programme.
Journal of Moral Education, 27
(2), 225-241.

Slote, M. (1992).
From morality to virtue
. New York:
Oxford University Press.
References:
Topic
Definition of Morality
How to improve morality?

1) Discuss controversial moral issue with friends

2) Do more group work

Social domain theory
Interactions with siblings provide children with opportunities to learn both moral and immoral behavior.

(Dunn, 1987)



Social domain theory

Because controversial children are more interpersonally skilled than other children, this finding was interpreted as demonstrating that more socially skilled that more socially skilled children are more advanced in their moral maturity.
(Sanderson & Siegal, 1988)

Interactions between friends provide an important context for a developing understanding of self and others through the opportunity for discourse about inner states and emotions, which may influence children’s moral evaluation.
(Dunn, 2000)

Social domain theory

how children actively distinguish moral from conventional behavior based in part on the
responses of parents, teachers, and peers
.

(Smetana, 1997)

Social domain theory
2 perspectives:
Internalization
(Grusec  Kochanska Kochanska, Askan, & Koenig, 1995)
Social domain theory
(Turiel, 1983; Smetana 2006)



Moral development
-Way to improve morality
Experience of conflicts, negotiation and cooperation may facilitate
moral development
(Piaget, 1932)

Reflection
Morality
Morality is the believing in a just and moral existence.
- Miller MJ, Woehr DJ
Full transcript