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Science of Showjumping.
Transcript of Science of Showjumping.
Jumping plays a major role in many equestrian sports, such as show jumping, fox hunting, steeplechasing, and eventing. The biomechanics of jumping, the influence of the rider, and the heritability of jumping prowess have all been the focus of research.
The airborne phase of the jumping process occurs between stance phases of the fore and hind limbs, and is therefore biomechanically equivalent to a highly suspended or elevated canter stride. For this reason, horses typically approach obstacles at the canter. The jumping process can be broken down into five phases:
The "approach" is the final canter stride before the jump, during which the horse places all four legs for the optimal take-off. The horse reaches forward and down with his neck to lower the forehand and his center of mass. The forelegs are propped or strutted out in front of the body
This relatively sudden braking action allows momentum to carry the hindlegs further under the body of the horse than would be otherwise possible. While the action is more fluid, it is mechanically similar to the act of crouching down before jumping.
The "take-off" begins when the forelegs leave the ground and is completed when the hindlegs leave the ground. Once the horse leaves the ground, he is unable to influence the trajectory that his center of mass follows through the air, which makes take-off the most critical phase of
of the jumping process. Most of the energy required to clear an obstacle is produced by the hind legs. The longer the hindlegs are in contact with the ground, the greater their capacity for producing power; the further forward the hindlegs are placed under the body,
closer to the obsctacle, the longer this stance phase. Power is produced by the compression of the hindleg, which flexes at the hip, stifle, hock, and fetlock, and then releases energy like a spring.
During "flight", the horse's center of mass follows a parabolic trajectory over which it has no control. The horse can change the position of its legs and body in relation to the center of mass, however, which is critical to clearing an obstacle safely. The horse's body rotates
Suspension/airborne phase 2
through the air, a quality called "bascule", to ensure that while the forehand clears the fence, the shoulders are the highest point of the body, and while the hind end clears the fence, the hips are the highest point of the body. The bascule is the horse's arc over the fence. A
Suspension/airborne phase 3
horse with a good bascule makes a rounded jump and helps the horse jump higher The forelegs are drawn up towards the body and the hindlegs are "retroflexed" out away from the body to clear the obstacle. During flight, the rider has little impact on the actual trajectory of
Suspension/airborne phase 4
the horse's body. Foals frequently change leads when jumping.
The horse lands first with the trailing (non-leading) foreleg, and then with the lead foreleg. The hind limbs follow suit. The landing places great strain on the horses forelegs, which can lead to injuries or lameness over time.
During the first stride after the jump, the horse re-balances himself. Horses sometimes react to discomfort or high emotion during the recovery, and may buck, bolt, or toss their heads.
There is no one set diet for riders. However, different areas in equestrian sport require different diets. For example, jumpers and racers such as Cian O'Conner need diets that wont increase their wight in order to be libhtweight enough to jump/ race etc. Crosscountry riders need muscle building diets. (protein, fibre)
Riders must wear certain gear. We wear helmets to prevent head injury, rib and back protectors to prevent our spine and chest. our boot are designed to give us grip on the stirruos while not rendering us unable to remove our feet from the stirrups in emergency. we wear jodpurs for grip.
Horse wear a bridle to enabe the rider to steer and halt the horse. They wear saddles as it helps riders keep balace and is far more comfortable for riders. they wear a numnah or saddle blanket, to prevent chaffing (saddle rash). horses can wear jumping boots to prevent injury