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Helen Williamson

on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of http://www.free-animations.co.uk/fish/fun/images/fun_5.gif

External Anatomy of Bony Fish
External Anatomy Bony Fish
Integrated Science Unit 1
Helen Williamson
The Head
Mouth shape and position
Superior mouth
Also known as an undershot or upturned mouth
Eats food above the fish
May eat at the water’s surface

Terminal mouth
Eats food in front of it
Inferior mouth
eats food below it
may eat of the bottom
Operculum & Gills
Gills
Allows gas exchange for the fish
Through the gills, fish are able to absorb oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
The gill cover

Operculum
The Body
Body shapes

Elongate/Serpentine
Hides in rocks and weeds

BARBELS
Also known as whiskers located under the mouth of a fish are tactile and taste organs used for locating food in dark or muddy waters
Ovate Body
Slow swimmer
Difficult for predators to swallow
Fusiform Body
High speed swimmers
The most common form
Truncate
A shortened type of fusiform
Body Covering
Covered with scales, which protect the body
Most fish get extra protection from a layer of slime that covers their scales called mucus.

Scales
Made of calcium, they are outgrowths of the skin
They overlap like shingles on a roof so that the skin of the fish is not exposed
The scales of a fish lie in pockets in the dermis and come out of the connective tissue.
Scales do not stick out of a fish but are covered by the Epithelial layer.
The ridges and the spaces on some types of scales become records of age and growth rate.

Mucus (Slime)
helps them move through the water better by reducing friction
is a barrier to the entry of parasites, fungi, and disease organisms that might infest the fish
it seals in the fish’s body fluids so that they are not diluted by the watery surroundings
makes the fish slippery when predators try to grab hold
Lateral Line
is a series of fluid-filled ducts located just under the scales
picks up vibrations in the water
fish are able to detect predators, find food, and navigate more efficiently
help the fish detect water pressure changes
It can detect minute electrical currents in the water
It runs in a semi line from the gills to the tail fin. It can be easily seen in fish as a band of darker looking scales running along the side.

Fins
used for movement, stability, nest-building, spawning, and as tactile organs
can be single or paired

Tail Fins
Also known as the caudal fin
Used for propulsion
Large, elongated caudal fins are often used to attract mates.
Anal Fin
A single fin
Located on the underside of the body just forward of the caudal fin
Used to stabilize the fish while it is swimming
Long anal fins that are moved in an undulating manner are used for propulsion
Pelvic or Ventral Fins
A paired fin
located forward of the anal fin
are used to provide further stability in swimming
times these fins are modified as long, thread-like fins used as a tactile organ
Relate to the hind legs
Pectoral Fin
A paired fin
located near the gill cover
used for manoeuvring the fish
Sometimes the pectoral fins are equipped with spines for defence
Related to the front legs or arms
Dorsal Fin
A single fin, but some species may have a second fin
located on the back of the fish
serves to help balance the fish while swimming
rays of this fin are often sharp, and a spine is often present
Adipose Fin
is a tiny fin found between the dorsal and caudal fins on some fish
a soft, fleshy fin
Finlets
small fins
generally behind the dorsal and anal fins
they are rayless and non-retractable
Caudal Keel
May be single, paired, or double pairs
a lateral ridge on the caudal peduncle
usually composed of scutes
provides stability and support to the caudal fin

Bony Fish Perch Anatomy
Full transcript