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SELF & Self Presentation
Transcript of SELF & Self Presentation
IdentItIeS: the Self We KnoW
Hierarchy of Identities
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We organize them into a hierarchy according to their salience—their relative importance to the self-schema.
1. The more frequently we choose to perform activities that express that identity
2. The more salient an identity, the more likely we are to perceive that situations offer opportunities to
enact that identity.
3. We are more active in seeking opportunities to enact salient identities
4. We conform more to the role expectations attached to the identities that we consider the most important
- The individual viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behavior.
- It is both active - "I" (the source that initiates reflexive behavior) and passive- "ME" (the object toward whom reflexive behavior is directed).
- The individual who acts and the individual toward whom the action is directed are the same
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Identities - are the meanings attached to the self by
one’s self and others
1. Role identity - are concepts of self in specific roles
2. Social Identity- A definition of the self in terms of the defining characteristics of a social group
Take note: Self-schemas are formed in part by adopting identities. The identities available to us depend on the culture:
1. Individualist cultures - emphasize individual achievement and its associated identities such as president, team captain, idealist, and outstanding player.
2. Collectivist cultures - emphasize values that promote the welfare of the group and its associated identities such as son (family), Catholic (religion), Italian (ethnicity), and American
2. Role Taking
- The process of imaginatively occupying the position of another person
and viewing the self and the situation from that person’s perspective
Age 4 - 6 years old - Indicate that children develop the ability to infer the
thoughts and expectations of others.
1. What is the self and how does it arise?
2. How do we acquire unique identities?
3. How do our identities guide our plans and behavior?
4. We are constantly experiencing selfevaluations.
Where do they come from, and how do they affect our
behavior? How do we protect our self-esteem against attack?
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Prof. Rosel O.Cipriano RPm , RPT
1. Manipulating Appraisals.
-We choose to associate with people who share our view of self and avoid people who do not.
2. Selective Social Comparison
- We usually compare ourselves with persons who are similar in age, sex, occupation, economic
status, abilities, and attitudes
3. Selective Commitment to Identities
- People tend to enhance self-esteem by assigning more importance to those identities (religious, racial, occupational, family) they consider particularly admirable.
4. Selective Information Processing
- By attending more to those occurrences that are consistent with our self-evaluation
SELF & Self Presentation
RoSenBerg SelF-eSTeeM SCAle
- This are conversations in their minds as they regulate
Three capacities human beings must acquire in order to engage successfully in action:
(1) develop an ability to differentiate themselves from
(2) learn to see themselves and their own actions as if through others’ eyes
(3) learn to use a symbol system or language for inner thought.
1. Self Differentiation
To take the self as the object of action, we must—at a minimum—be able to recognize ourselves.
Allport - Learning one’s own name is one of the earliest and
most important steps in acquiring a self.
18 months - Children are able to discriminate their own
image from others
18 to 24 months - Children become capable of representing self
other contingencies (for example, “If I do X, she does Y”)
4 years old - Children report that their thinking and knowing
goes on inside their heads.
Social Origin of Self
Looking Glass Self (Cooley - 1902).
The most important looking glasses for children are their
parents and immediate family and, later, their playmates.
Significant others—the people whose reflected views have
greatest influence on the child’s self-concepts.
Generalized other— a conception of the attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the organized groups with whom they interact.
Play and the Game
Mead (1934) identified two sequential stages of social experience leading to the emergence of the self in children.
a.In the play stage
- Young children imitate the activities of people around them. Through such play, children learn to organize different activities into meaningful roles (nurse, police officer, firefighter).
b. The game stage
- When children enter organized activities such as complex games of house, school, and team sports. These activities demand interpersonal coordination because the various roles are differentiated.
- The self constructed through online interaction
1. Inwardly oriented -people may use CMC to communicate about their inner world of thoughts and feelings
2. Narrative or a story—that is, a self-presentation that is expected by others to be coherent and consistent
3. Retractable - in real life, our various selves all inhabit the same body, and cannot easily be detached
4. multiplied - one can have several, diverse selves
- Defining of the self as a member of a social category such as Irish
American, Black American, or feminist
- The idea that the person bases his or her self-schema on the reactions he or she perceives from others during social interaction.
- It is the perceived reactions of others rather than their actual reactions that are crucial for self-concept formation
Reflected appraisal model - It is perceived reactions of others that influence self-perception
Situated self - is the subset of self-concepts chosen from our identities,
qualities, and self-evaluations that constitutes the self we know in a particular situation
Identity control theory (Burke, 1991)
- An actor uses the social meaning of his or her identity as a reference point for assessing what is occurring in the situation.
-It refers to a situation in which one is at risk of confirming as self-characteristic a negative stereotype
about a group to which one belongs
Identity and behavior
Importance of role dentity is affected by the following:
(1) the resources we have invested in constructing the identity(time, effort, and money expended, for example,in learning to be a sculptor);
(2) the extrinsic rewards that enacting the identity has brought (for example, purchases by collectors, acclaim by critics)
(3) the intrinsic gratifications derived from performing the identity (for example, the sense of competence and aesthetic pleasure obtained when sculpting a human figure)
(4) the amount of self-esteem staked on enacting the identity well
The hierarchy of identities influences
consistency in three ways:
1. It provides us with a basis for choosing which situations we should enter and which ones we should avoid.
2. It influences the consistency of behavior across different situations
3.It influences consistency in behavior across time
Self-Awareness and Self-Discrepancies
- We take the self as the object of our attention and focus on our own appearance, actions, and thoughts. This corresponds to the “me” phase of action.
- A component of the actual self is the opposite of a component of the ideal self or the ought self—we experience
- The evaluative component of self-concept
Assessment of Self-Esteem
(1) Characteristics of self are contingencies of self esteem.
(2)How we evaluate each of them
Sources of Self-Esteem
1. Family experience
2. Performance feedback
3. Social comparisons
1. Family Experience
Four types of parental behavior promote higher self-esteem (Coopersmith 1967)
(a) Showing acceptance, affection, interest, and involvement in children’s affairs
(b) Firmly and consistently enforcing clear limits on children’s behavior
(c) Allowing children latitude within these limits and respecting
initiative (such as older children setting their own bedtime and participating in making family plans)
(d) Favoring noncoercive forms of discipline (such as denying
privileges and discussing reasons, rather than punishing physically)
2. Performance Feedback
Everyday feedback about the quality of our performances ,our successes and failures—influences our self-esteem.
In other words, selfesteem is based partly on our sense of efficacy— of competence and power to control events.
3. Social Comparison
It is crucial to selfesteem, because the feelings of competence
or worth we derive from a performance depend in large part on with whom we are compared, both by ourselves and by others
- It refers to the processes by which individuals attempt
to control the impressions that others form of them in social interaction
1. Authentic self-presentation
- The goal is to create an image of ourselves in the eyes of others
that is consistent with the way we view ourselves (our real self).
2. Ideal self-presentation
- The goal is to establish a public image of ourselves that is consistent with what we wish we were (our ideal self).
3. Tactical selfpresentation
- The concern is to establish a public image of ourselves that is consistent
with what others want or expect us to be.
In the 15 numbered blanks, write 15 different answers to the simple question “Who am I?” Answer as if you were giving the answers to yourself, not to somebody else. Write the answers in the order they occur to you. don’t worry about “logic” or “importance.”
- It is an agreement about their situated identities, what their goals are, what actions are proper, and what their behaviors mean.
To establish a definition of the situation, people must agree on the answers to two questions:
(1) What type of social occasion is at hand? That is, what is the frame of the interaction?
Frame - is a set of widely understood rules or conventions pertaining to a transient but repetitive social situation that indicates which roles should be enacted and which behaviors are proper
(2) What identities do the participants claim, and what identities will
they grant one another?
Situated identity—a conception of who he or she is in relation to the other people involved in the situation.
- This process of revealing personal aspects of one’s feelings and behavior to others
Norm of reciprocity in disclosure
- That one person should respond to another’s disclosures with disclosures at a similar level of intimacy
Self-disclosure usually leads to liking and social approval from others
Tactical Impression Management.
- The use of conscious, goal-directed activity to control information to influence impressions
1. To make others like us more than they would otherwise (ingratiation)
2. To make others fear us (intimidation),
3. To respect our abilities (self-promotion),
4. To respect our morals (exemplification),
5. To feel sorry for us (supplication).
-It refers to everything about a person that others can observe. This includes clothes, grooming, overt habits such as smoking or chewing gum, choice and arrangement of personal possessions, verbal communication (accents, vocabulary), and nonverbal communication.
Goffman (1959b) draws a parallel between a theater’s front and back stages and the regions we use in managing appearances:
1. Front regions
-It denote settings in which people carry out interaction performances and exert efforts to maintain appropriate appearances vis-àvis others.
2. Back regions
- Are settings inaccessible to outsiders in which people knowingly violate
the appearances they present in front regions
- An attempts to increase a target person’s liking for us.
- The original theory (Jones, 1964) included the assumption that these attempts are conscious, but subsequent work has broadened the definition to include attempts that occur automatically due to social learning
1. Opinion conformity
- Pretending to share the target person’s views on important issues.
2. Other enhancement
- Outright flattery or complimenting of the target person
- Convincing others tha you are needy and deserving.
Ingratiation Tactics (cont.)
4. Selective Self-Presentation
- It involves the explicit presentation or description of one’sown attributes to increase the likelihood of being judged attractive by the target.
Two distinct forms of selective self-presentation
- When a person advertises his or her strengths, virtues, and admirable qualities.
- When a person makes only humble or modest claims
- Attempts to define their apparently questionable conduct as actually in line with cultural norms.
- It is a verbal assertion intended to ward off any negative implications of impending actions by defining these actions as irrelevant to one’s established identity.
- This are the explanations people offer to mitigate responsibility after they have performed acts that threaten their social identities
a. Excuses - reduce or deny one’s responsibility for the unsuitable behavior by citing uncontrollable events.
b. Justifications - admit responsibility for the unsuitable behavior but also try to define the behavior as appropriate under the circumstances.
- The use of tactics to impose roles and identities on others.
- We place others in situated identities and roles that are to our advantage.
- It involves treating others as if they already have the identities
and roles that we wish to impose on them.
DetectIng decePtIve IMPreSSIon
1 Ulterior motives
- It means that ingratiators must be doubly careful to conceal their ulterior motives and avoid detection under conditions of high dependency
2. Nonverbal cues
- It denotes the inadvertent communication of true intentions
or emotions through nonverbal channels
and SPoIled IdentItIeS
- It is the feeling we experience when the public identity we claim in an encounter is discredited
- Lack the skills to perform in a manner consistent with the identity they claim.
- Cognitive shortcoming, such as forgetfulness.
- Violation of privacy norms
- Awkwardness or lack of poise
- To eliminate the conditions causing embarrassment.
How to restore face
- Make excuse or justification
- Exaggerated reassertion of that identity
- It refers to gently persuading a person whose performance is unsuitable to accept a less desirable, though still reasonable, alternative identity.
- It establishes the offender as a nonperson—an individual who cannot be trusted to perform as a normal member of the social group because of reprehensible motives
- It is a characteristic widely viewed as an insurmountable handicap that prevents competent or morally trustworthy behavior
Different types of Stigma
1. Physical challenges and deformities
- Missing or paralyzed limbs, ugly scars,blindness, or deafness.
2. Character defects
- Dishonesty, sexual attraction to inappropriate targets, psychological derangements, or treacherous beliefs.
3. Race, sex, and religion that
- In particular segments of society—are believed to contaminate or morally debilitate all members of a group