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Y13 A-Level PE: Psychology

M Timms

on 18 December 2017

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Transcript of Confidence

Warm Up (5 minutes)
Friday 20 January
Lesson 20

Introduce the concepts of self confidence and self efficacy in sport
Explain how they can facilitate or inhibit performance
Work together to explain how a coach can develop confidence to improve performance
2 x volunteers are needed to complete a competitive activity which involves a fine-closed skill.

Winner will receive a prize!

Self Confidence


Self Efficacy

an aspect of
self esteem
belief that one
can succeed
an attitude
a situation specific
form of
self confidence
the perception
to perform a
particular sporting
task successfully
What are the characteristics of someone that shows confidence?
Positive emotions
Remain calm
Good concentration

Challenging but realistic goals
Task persistence
Takes risks
Play to win/improve

What happens to a performer when there's a lack of self confidence?
A lack of confidence:
causes stress under pressure
casues concentration on outside stressors
- mistakes
- spectators
causes the setting of goals which are either too easy or too hard
causes the performer to try to avoid mistakes
non-confident performers find it difficult to reverse negative psychological momentum
- once things start to go wrong
- it is difficult to think positively
What can a coach do?
The Role of the Coach
develop self confidence
and self efficacy
through successful achievement

ensure early and continued success
by careful selection of:
- goals
- tasks
- level of competition

focus on successful personal performance not on winning
Task/performance goals
Tuesday 19 January
Lesson 17
Confidence 2

Extend knowledge of how confidence levels can affect sporting performance.
Work in small groups to explain possible theories which relate to confidence in sport.
Plan, discuss and complete questions on confidence from the PHED3 exam paper.
Extension Studies during lesson...
Working individually, you will research the following topics, reporting back to the group with your answers ready for next lesson...

1. Social Facilitation with examples
2. Social Inhibition with examples
3. Types of Audience/Others
4. Evaluation Apprehension
5. Baron's Distraction-Conflict Theory
6. Homefield advantage
Social Facilitation
Social facilitation concerns how people other than the performer can influence attitudes and behaviour.
The effect that the presence of spectators has on the way sportspeople play or perform can be positive (called facilitation), or negative (called inhibition).

For example, a crowd encourages a team playing well (
positive or facilitation
), or the crowd jeers at a team not playing well (
negative or inhibition

Facilitation of a performance by an audience tends to lead to the fact that high arousal leads to improved performance by a highly skilled or extrovert performer (
Hull's Drive Theory
Gross or simple skills tend to be improved by audience effects. See the link between
arousal and performance in Hull's Drive Theory
Social Inhibition
Where the presence of an audience inhibits performance, high arousal tends to lead to reduced performance by novices whose skills are not well-learned.

This also applies to introvert performers.

Fine and complex skills requiring great concentration will also tend to have performance levels reduced by negative audience effects.
Types of Audience/Others
When concerned with Social Facilitation, there are different types of audience:

- Audience (watching either at event or at home - eg. any spectators);

- Co-actors (performing same task but not in competition - eg. officials/referees/umpires, team mates, ball boys);

- Competitive co-actors (in direct competition with player - eg. opposition players, coaches, supporters);

- Social reinforcers (direct influence - eg. coach).
This theory suggests audience/others only have influence if performer feels they are being judged; or that an audience is perceived as evaluating (assessing the value or worth of) performance.

This causes arousal - which in turn, can
cause anxiety.
Cottrell's Evaluation Apprehension
2. Increase in psychological arousal
5. Improved performance when an expert
3. Dominant performance
4. Reduce performance whilst learning
1. Audience
The Distraction Effect
Baron’s distraction-conflict theory suggests that performers must focus on the task and ignore audience/others. This distraction is an aspect of concentration (or lack of concentration).

Attentional focus and selective attention is very important for the effective sportsperson and if this is disrupted then he or she is distracted from the task.

Audience and evaluation apprehension can act as a distraction.
The sportsperson needs therefore to:
- Train in front of others, gradually increasing the numbers;
- Improve selective attention;
- Reduce the importance of the event;
- Avoid social comparison with others;
- Encourage team mates to be supportive;
- Use stress management and relaxation techniques;
- Use attributions correctly (a topic which we will cover next in the course);
- Ensure the skills are OVER-LEARNED to encourage the dominant habit;
- Increase highly skilled autonomous phase and ensure success.
Homefield Advantage
The 'home or away effect on performance' concerns the fact that statistically more teams win at home than away.

The environment of their own stadium or playing situation is familiar to home teams, therefore home players are more comfortable. This limits anxiety and enables a worry-free and hopefully successful performance.

However, a crowd may be judged as supportive OR hostile (facilitation or inhibition), and high levels of anxiety caused by hostility may reduce performance for the home side.
What are the characteristics of someone that shows confidence?
What happens to a performer when there's a lack of self confidence?
What can a coach do to help a
players confidence?
Bandura's Social Learning Theory was key to the understanding of Self-Efficacy - how could Self-Efficacy develop within sport?

Which topic in A2 Psychology would this link with?
Performance accomplishment / prior success
- For example, a hockey pass successfully completed would tend to increase self-efficacy the next time a pass was expected.

Vicarious Experience, which is seeing others of similar standard successfully complete task
- This is modelling of a task by someone else – seeing the task performed successfully by someone else can increase self-efficacy of the observer.

Verbal Persuasion or encouragement by others
- This can be by a coach or significant other shouting encouragement form the sidelines during a game.
- Such a tactic can include deception – in which a player is encouraged in spite of faults.

Emotional Arousal which is influenced by level of anxiety
- For example feeling anxious before a game can raise arousal and increase or decrease self-efficacy.
- This can also affect and be affected by motivation and determination of the player.
- A more highly motivated (determined) player will have higher arousal and gretaer self-efficacy when faced with a task like attempting to beat a favoured opponent at tennis.

Bandura suggested that self-efficacy is influenced by four factors...
Working in the following pairs, compare your extension studies work.
Write on your whiteboard 1 x question per area which you could ask another pair.
Warm Up - 5 minutes
Use the skill of cup stacking to explain one of the topics which you have researched;
You will need to cup stack and imitate how the level of confidence may be affected;
You will also need to explain the theory to the rest of the group and explain how it could affect performance;
You only have 5 minutes to practise - start now!

1. Social Facilitation with examples
2. Social Inhibition with examples
3. Types of Audience/Others
4. Evaluation Apprehension
5. Baron's Distraction-Conflict Theory
6. Homefield advantage
Task 1 - 25 minutes
Exam Question 1 - 6 minutes
All players within a team are likely to experience ‘anxiety’ at some point during their performance.

Discuss the suggestion that ‘home field advantage’ will always improve the performance of the home team.

(4 marks)
Exam Question 2 - 20 minutes
The crowd can affect elite performers either positively or negatively.

At the 2008 Wimbledon Tennis Championships, the British player Andy Murray commented after winning one match:

‘You know, the crowd were awesome, they got behind me, I mean, more than they ever have before. I think to finish the set like that really got the crowd going. It shifted the momentum of the match hugely.’

Explain the concept of ‘social facilitation’ and how it can affect performance. Outline the possible strategies which the performer and coach may use to limit any negative effects that may occur.
(14 marks)
Home Advantage?
Home Disadvantage??
Home support tends to improve social / performance facilitation effect / boost self-efficacy /
Lower levels of anxiety.
More matches won at home than away / during early rounds of competitions / Olympic & World medals by host nation.
Home teams tend to play more attacking styles / tactics / functional aggressive behaviour
Away teams tend to play more defensive styles / tactics
Proximity effect / closeness of crowd has negative effect on visiting teams.
Larger crowd / hostile crowd has a negative effect on visiting teams.
Away team commit more fouls / can become anxious / over–aroused due to crowd or unfamiliar surroundings.
Increased pressure
from the home crowd
More important the game the greater the pressure / choke effect / championship choke.
Performers become more self-conscious at home causing over-arousal.
Increased expectation
from the home crowd
Players place more pressure on themselves at home matches due to expectations.
Social inhibition for the home team.
Evaluation apprehension for the home team.
R - Read
U - Underline
D - Decide
E - Explain
What would the mark scheme look like?
1 mark for
1 mark for
1 mark for
1 mark for
All players within a team are likely to experience ‘anxiety’ at some point during their performance.

Discuss the suggestion that ‘home field advantage’ will always improve the performance of the home team.

(4 marks)
What do we need to consider with a 14-mark question?
Full transcript