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Transcript of New Republic
The New Republic
War & Development of Political Parties
Washington's Farewell Address
John Adams 1796
A messy Presidency
Election of 1800
Creation of a cabinet
Judiciary Act of 1798
Organizes first Supreme Court
6 person court
First Chief Justice: John Jay
Disagreement between Hamilton & Jefferson
The Whiskey Rebellion
First tax on a domestic product
Rebel Farmers rise up
"It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one....against another....it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another."
The French Revolution
Neutrality Proclamation (1793)
Ideas & Issues:
Alien & Sedition Acts
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Purchases Louisiana Territory for $15 million from France
Lewis & Clark Expedition
Ideas & Issues
Founds West Point Military Academy
ActsFour separate laws constituted what is commonly referred to as the "Alien and Sedition Acts"
The Naturalization Act (officially An act supplementary to, and to amend the act to establish a uniform rule of naturalization; and to repeal the act heretofore passed on that subject; ch. 54, 1 Stat. 566) repealed and replaced the Naturalization Act of 1795 to extend the duration of residence required for aliens to become citizens of the United States from five years to fourteen years.
The Alien Act (officially An Act Concerning Aliens; ch. 58, 1 Stat. 570) authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States." It was activated June 25, 1798, with a two year expiration date.
The Alien Enemies Act (officially An Act Respecting Alien Enemies; ch. 66, 1 Stat. 577) authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States of America. Enacted July 6, 1798, and providing no sunset provision, the act remains intact today as 50 U.S.C. §§ 21–24. At the time, war was considered likely between the U.S. and France.
The Sedition Act (officially An Act in Addition to the Act Entitled "An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes against the United States"; ch. 74, 1 Stat. 596) made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or certain officials. It was enacted July 14, 1798, with an expiration date of March 3, 1801 (the day before Adams' presidential term was to end).
Nullification - the right of a state to declare void a federal law on basis that it is unconstitutional.
Department of War - Henry Knox - 1
Department of State - Thomas Jefferson - 2
Attorney General - Edmund Randolph - 3
Department of the Treasury - Alexander Hamilton - 4
(Washington - 5)
Presidential Cabinet Today
Election of 1808
Another new President
Response: Embargo Act: Prohibited exports to foreign countries
Presidency ends - easy election of James Madison
Life & Legacy
Secret life- Sally Hemings
Virginia - 1809-1817
Washington puts the uprising down...in person.
Initially a tie
House of Reps must decide
Alexander Hamilton helps Jefferson get elected
Considers him "less dangerous" than Burr
Jefferson - President
Burr - Vice-President
Burr Challenges Hamilton to a duel!
Burr charged with murder (no sentence) but career ruined
VP - Jefferson!
Washington reluctantly serves 2nd term - retires to his home in Virginia
"With feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to his place of execution."
Only president in history to win all electoral votes
Marbury vs. Madison
Adams - midnight apts. of Supreme Court Justices
Judiciary Act of 1801 - added positions to Supreme Court - restructured court system
Madison (Jefferson's Secretary of State refuses to appoint)
William Marbury tells court to "make him!"
Decision: Supreme Court declares laws unconstitutional
Judicial Review - power of Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional (or constitutional)
Primary job of the court today
The Hemingses of Monticello
Annette Gordon Reed