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Migration in Australia

How Australian migration has changed over time
by

george ekdawi

on 5 October 2013

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Transcript of Migration in Australia

Australian Migration in a nut-shell
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Hello!
Hello. My name is George Ekdawi
Today I will be explaining how:
views on migrants have changed throughout the post-war era
Australia has slowly developed into the multicultural country that it now is.
A migrant is a person that moves from one region, place, or country to another.
Australia is currently one of the most diverse countries in terms of culture and is prominent in migrants.
It only gets... bleaker?
The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 only made things worse for migration.

7000 Australian migrants originally born in
Germany
the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Bulgaria
Turkey
faced imprisonment or general restrictions on their daily lives and were classified as 'enemy' aliens.
Discovery of gold shines on immigration
The discovery of gold (in 1851) led to a boom in Australian migration.
600,000 people arrived
substantial percentage of migrants being non-British.

Although Australia never again saw such a rush of new immigrants, the interest in settling here remained.
Australian Migration
Australia has been unfair and discriminatory in the immigration system and still is to the boat people of today
four out of every ten people are either migrants or the children of migrants.

Australia today is, for the most part, a tolerant and multicultural society and I hope that this will be the case for many years to come.
However...

Attitudes to migration
the ideal source of migrants
rights as well as freedoms of migrants
have changed dramatically over the considerably short era of European settlement.

The first migrants of Australia were enslaved convicts, after all!
Federation slows things down
Migrant Australians- the enemy?
Despite these immigrants being accepted before, the government called their own people the enemy.

Even after the war, the 1901 Immigration Act was extended to ban people from these countries for five years.
Peace... no problems
In 1918, migration was back in Australia.
The British Government offered ex-servicemen free passage to one of the colonies.
Organisations such as the Salvation Army began to sponsor migrants.

What is a migrant?
Migration continues to drop
The migration rate continued to drop with the outbreak of the Second World War. Certain races were reclassified as ‘enemy aliens’ and detained or kept under close police surveillance.

Under mass persecution, the Jewish sought refuge in Australia; away from Hitler’s monstrous acts. However, many refugees on ships such as the Jewish ‘Dunera’ were interned on racist terms.
'Populate or perish'
The Australian government made the words ‘Populate or perish’ the new meme leading Australian migration.

The near invasion by the Japanese caused a complete rethink of ideal population numbers and pushed the government to increase the migration rate.
By George Ekdawi
- finally!
In 1945, the Department of Immigration was established
it decided that 70,000 immigrants a year were needed

Despite the government wanting the majority to be Anglo Celtic, the British Government was both unable and unwilling to meet such a high target.

At the same time...
At the same time that Australia was looking for new migrants:
11 million people that had survived Nazi labour were unable or unwilling to return to their war-stricken home.
Arthur Calwell agreed to accept a minimum of 12,000 of these refugees a year.
In exchange for free passage and assistance on their arrival, they agreed to work for the government for two years.
Australia seen as more than 'white'
In the early 1950’s the Federal Government started to:
reap the economic and social rewards of multiculturalism
began to relax its ‘White Australia’ policy
lowered their reliance and dependence on Britain.
One of the largest employers of migrants was the Snowy Mountain Scheme. The work was hard and dangerous and meant that men lived for months in isolated and primitive camps.

Other migrants found work in factories, in the burgeoning iron and steel industries, on the railways and in mines.
Migration reaches new high
In 1956 non-European residents were allowed to apply for citizenship
two years later the Dictation Test was abolished as a further means of exclusion.
Injustice of illegal migrants
In the 1970's, the ‘boat people’ arrived in Darwin.
More than 25 000 have arrived since.
Although Australia has been criticized for the injustice of interring all illegal migrants, particularly children, it continues to this day.
That's all folks.. for now!
Thank you for listening to my speech.
Free
Work in the 'lucky' country
To stimulate the economy, all assisted migrants over 16 (around our age) were forced to work.

Whilst awaiting work, they had to live in 'primitive' migration hostels. In these hostels, men and women were separated into single sex barracks, shared bathrooms, had basic tuition as well as often revolting food.

Hostels made migrants find work quickly and contribute to the economy in schemes such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Men worked as labourers and women as domestics.
In 1901, immigration was controlled by the Federal government. The very first legislation passed by the new parliament was the ‘White Australia’ policy.

This banned many non-European countries migrating for the next fifty years.

Stock market and migration reach rock-bottom
Migration was rising until the stock-market crashed in 1929 and the Great Depression began.

The stock-market crash meant that:
people couldn't afford to migrate to Australia
organisations couldn't fund migrants
there was limited work and opportunities.
Full transcript