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Quad Copter Design

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by

bassem ezz

on 7 July 2014

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Transcript of Quad Copter Design

Quad Copter Design

History of Quad
Lift & Drag
Forces
Total Assembly
Control Analysis
Designed in house by the HobbyKing Enginerds, this handy power distribution board has the same foot print as our Multri-rotor control boards and is the ultimate solution for tidy power distribution wiring. Simply use 3.5mm male connectors on your ESCs and plug a battery in.

The PCB is Gold plated for optimality efficiency and also features a bling port (aka 2 pin JST size auxiliary power out) Perfect for powering LEDs or any accessory fitted to your Quadcopter.
Why we Choose Quad Copter
Total Design
Motion Analysis
Main Body
Material :

Aluminum 70 - 75

Dim. :
2.5 X 2.5 x 2.5

Reason of Selection :

* Can handle stress .
* Proper weight and strains .
* Available .
* easy to modify .
* Good Operation condition .

Optimum Design
Propeller
Material :

plastic and fiber glass.

Dim. :

APC SF 11 4.7

Reason of Selection :


* Lower pitch which enable us
to fly slowly.
* Proper weight and Kv.
* Low Cost.
* Stability during flying.
A quad copter, also called a quad rotor helicopter, quadrocopter, quadrotor,is a multi copter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quad copters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a set of revolving narrow-chord airfoils. Unlike most helicopters, quad copters generally use symmetrically pitched blades; these can be adjusted as a group, a property known as 'collective', but not individually based upon the blade's position in the rotor disc, which is called 'cyclic' . Control of vehicle motion is achieved by altering the pitch and/or rotation rate of one or more rotor discs, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics.
Early in the history of flight, quad copter configurations were seen as possible solutions to some of the persistent problems in vertical flight; torque-induced control issues (as well as efficiency issues originating from the tail rotor, which generates no useful lift) can be eliminated by counter-rotation and the relatively short blades are much easier to construct. A number of manned designs appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. These vehicles were among the first successful heavier-than-air vertical take off and landing (VTOL) vehicles. However, early prototypes suffered from poor performance, and latter prototypes required too much pilot work load, due to poor stability augmentation and limited control authority.
Convert wings Model A
Quad rotor (1956)
This unique helicopter was intended to be the prototype for a line of much larger civil and military quadrotor helicopters. The design featured two engines driving four rotors through a system of v belts. No tailrotor was needed and control was obtained by varying the thrust between rotors.Flown successfully many times in the mid-1950s, this helicopter proved the quadrotor design and it was also the first four-rotor helicopter to demonstrate successful forward flight. Due to a lack of orders for commercial or military versions however, the project was terminated. Convertawings proposed a Model E that would have a maximum weight of 42,000 lb (19 t) with a payload of 10,900 lb (4.9 t) over 300 miles and at up to 173 mph (278 km/h).
Curtiss-Wright
VZ-7 (1958)
The Curtiss-Wright VZ-7 was a VTOL aircraft designed by the Curtiss-Wright company for the US Army. The VZ-7 was controlled by changing the thrust of each of the four propellers
In the last few decades, small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become more commonly used for many applications. The need for aircraft with greater maneuverability and hovering ability has led to current rise in quad copter research. The four-rotor design allows quad copters to be relatively simple in design yet highly reliable and maneuverable. Cutting-edge research is continuing to increase the viability of quad copters by making advances in multi-craft communication, environment exploration, and maneuverability. If all of these developing qualities can be combined together, quad copters would be capable of advanced autonomous missions that are currently not possible with any other vehicle.
Reference
1. "The Stanford Testbed
of Autonomous
Rotorcraft for Multi
Agent Control (STARMAC)".

2. "A Successful French
Helicopter.

3. "Quadrotor Helicopter Flight Dynamics and Control Theory and Experiment" .
Motor
Material :
Typhroon outrunner 820 KV


Dim. :

36 x 60



Reason of Selection :

* Proper thrust.
* suitable size for our body.
* Save power
* Low Cost.
* Good Operation condition.
Battery
Material :

Li-po 5800 MAH

Dim. :
8 x 2.5 x 2.4

Reason of Selection :
* Save power.
* Small size for our body.
* Proper duration.
* Low Cost.
* Good Operation condition.
Basically a Quadcopter is a quadrotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Unlike helicopters they use symmetrically pitched blades. Control of vehicle motion is achieved by altering the pitch and/or rotation rate of one or more rotor discs, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. Check the image below for the principle behind the quad’s motion.
As you can see, the motors 1 and 4 rotate in CW direction while 3 and 2 rotate CCW thus creating a downward thrust which lifts the quad. By varying the speed of the 4 rotors various movements are possible. There are three important terms mentioned above namely the
YAW , ROLL and PITCH
which we must have a clear concept of before understanding the quad’s movement.
Yaw :

Will make it rotate around its vertical axis.
Roll :
Will make it bend to the left/right.
Pitch :
will make the quadcopter go forward/ backward.
Multi-Applications
Description
1- Small Size and easy
to use in any field.

2- provided with control
system and connected.

3-can specify sites and
collect information.

4-Available and
economical.
1- Archeologist field.

2- Observation and
Exploring.

3- Photographing and
Media.

4- Air pollution.

5- Detect metals.
Thanks
For 500 RPM
Ct = 0.082
Ft = 0.849 N
FT (ω) = CT ρ Ar2 ω2 = CT ρ π r4 ω2


ρ = 1.1 Kg/s


r = D/2 = 0.1397

ω = 5000/60 = 83.333 RPS
For advanced ratio
j = 0.2

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