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Petroleum and its Products

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by

Andrew Chen

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of Petroleum and its Products

Petroleum And its Products Distillation of Crude Oil
(Yayyyy) Oil Usage Plastics and Other Oil Products Oil Consumption A Few Petroleum Products What is Oil? What Can Oil Be Made Into? How is Crude Oil Extracted? Introduction to Oil
(Oil is Great) Hydrocarbons (Hydrogen and Carbon, with other elements such as sulfur) Oil Rigs The simplest refineries stop at the previous steps. However, many refineries continue to other steps such as using catalytic crackers, reformers, and cokers. Catalytic crackers use a catalytic agent to break down complex hydrocarbons into simpler, lighter ones. For example, large hydrocarbons such as kerosene can be broken down into gasoline. Reformers use pressure and heat to rearrange certain hydrocarbons by using pressure that can exceed 225 pounds per square inch. This process can be used to remove sulfur from hydrocarbons to produce a different hydrocarbon chain. Cokers are thermal distillation processes to make fuels from heavier products by actually breaking longer chains into shorter ones. Includes: Plastics
Some Kinds of Rubber
Some Medicines, Medicine Capsules
Fuels
Ink*
Chewing Gum*
Crayons*
Toothbrushes, Toothpaste*
"Natural" and Artificial Flavoring*
Many Car Components*
Soap*
Beer*
*- Not made entirely of oil (thank goodness!) Fossil Fuel Mainly used in plastics and fuel
Contrary to popular belief, oil can be black, green, or clear. Drilling pipes extract oil from the ground. Oil Rigs can be on land or water. Fuel (Gasoline, Diesel, Aviation Fuel) Plastics Parkesine
Polystyrene
Celluloid
Polyvinyl Chloride
Polyvinylidene Chloride
Cellophane
Polyurethane
Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)
Neoprene
Polyethylene Terephthalate
Polypropylene
Styrofoam US consumes the most of the Earth's oil, about 22%
About 6.5-7 billion barrels of oil per year
About 40% of the US is run by petroleum, 86% by fossil fuels Simple Diagram of Distillation Explanation of the Distillation Process Crude oil is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. When crude oil is distilled, it separates each kind of hydrocarbon from each other. When this happens, the crude oil is moved into a distillation column and then the oil is heated. Once the hydrocarbons heat up, certain types of hydrocarbons boil off at certain temperatures.
For example, residual fuel oil sometimes has
to be heated up to 1000 F. High Tech Distillation of Crude Oil Complicated Distillation Diagram... Plastics Petrochemicals to Plastics The word plastic derives from the greek word (plastikos), meaning capable of being shaped or molded. It coincides with plastics ability to be molded , pressed, extruded, or cast into various shapes during its manufacturing. Recycling Plastics Most plastics can be recycled
Melting points vary
Can be toxic After the materials like ethane or propane are "cracked" into ethylene or propylene at high temperatures, it is polymerized with a catalyst to form the polymers, polyethylene or polypropylene Polyethylene
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