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AP Psychology- Research Methods
Transcript of AP Psychology- Research Methods
2. Discern Hidden Values
3. Evaluates Evidence
4. Assesses Conclusions Limits of Intuition Hindsight Bias- knew it all along phenomenon Over Confidence- we think we know more than we do The Scientific Method Theory- organize and predict behavior Hypothesis- testable predictions; strong hypothesis
should be able to be replicated Descriptive Methods Case Study- studying one specific group or person Survey 1. Wording Effects 2. Random Sample Represent Population False Consensus Effect Naturalistic Observation Correlation Studies Correlation Coefficient- statistical number that describes the strength of a relationship between two variables
Strongest correlations are 1 and -1 Correlation and Causation- no matter how strong a correlation is, does not mean one variable causes the other Illusory Correlations- illustrations of believed realtionships lead
to unscientific conclusions
We naturally look for patterns as humans Experiments investigator changes one or more variable to observe
the effect on some behavior or mental processes Seeks to control other important factors like random sample and
sample size Experimental condition – people receive the treatment or one version of the independent variable Control condition – closest approximation of “normal” conditions Double-blind procedure- placing subjects into EC or CC without subject or experimenter knowing, controls placebo effect Random assignment- making sure that EC and CC are fundamentally the same, not assigning groups to control Independent variable – variable that experimenters change from EC to CC
Dependent variable- measurable difference between
experimental condition and control condition Statistical Reasoning Psychology uses statistics to describe the results of an experiment
and determine if a result is significant, keeps psychology scientific Measures of Central Tendency Mean- average Median- middle score Mode- most often Range- largest minus the smallest Standard Deviation- how far from the middle is normal