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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
Would you have rebelled against the king? Why or why not?
What are the problems of society? What is your evidence?
What are the solutions? DEBRIEF Roman Catholic Church and Clergy
Owned 10% of the land and provided education and relief services to the poor
Viewed Enlightenment ideas as radical notions
Contributed 2% of income to the government Rich nobles
2% of population
Owned 20% of land
Viewed enlightenment ideas as radical notions that threatened their status and power 97% of population
Made up of three groups
50% of income went to clergy First Estate Second Estate Third Estate What problems do you see with this social/economic structure?
What are some (at least two) solutions to the problems you see?
Knowing just this, predict what will happen next. King Louis XVI Marie Antoinette The Big Move:
From Estates General To National Assembly The Estates General was a governing body in France. Years ago it was the first step towards a Constitutional Monarchy, but, it was effectively controlled by the absolute monarchist king. In 1789, King Louis XVI decided to call it together in order to save the failing French economy. Louis knew he could no longer save France on tax dollars of the third estate alone. His solution was to tax the other estates. However, in order to do this, he needed the support of the Estates General. In 1789, he called it to order for the first time since 1614. Estates General OR You will assume the roles you were assigned to during the “garage sale.” You will be preparing two items from the perspective of your role. The first order of business was to decide on how to vote. Traditionally, they voted with three votes only, one vote for each estate. This is good for some while unfortunate for others. Please write the question “How should we vote? Why?” on the top half of the next blank page in your notebook. You will need to respond with a list of arguments, evidence, and reasons either backing your choice or in support of a new one. The response must be at least ½ page. King Louis XVI has called you all to attend a historic meeting. This is the first time in over 100 years that the Estates General has been called. As a group, you will decide whether or not the first and second estates will be taxed by the king. Please write the question “Should the first and second estates be taxed? Why?” on the second half of the same page or on the next blank one. You will need to respond with a list of arguments, evidence, and reasons either backing your choice or in support of a new one. The response must be at least ½ page. A discussion between the Estates will take place and a vote will take place to decide how it will be done. Tennis Court Oath Storming Of The Bastille Sparked by a rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. 18 died
7 guards killed
It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen] The Great Fear:
A Peasant Revolt Sparked by rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land. “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly; Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.” Declaration Of The Rights Of Man National Assembly Reign Of Terror The Rise Of Napoleon Title the next blank page in your notebook "Garage Sale"
List all the items you have on your person
Write down what you could sell that item for
Tally it all up and put the total on the top of the page Women's March On Versailles statement of revolutionary ideals "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights" "Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY Olympe De Gouges Declaration Of The Rights Of Women
Ideas were rejected
Declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed Many of the early reforms focused on the Church Took over Church lands
Made Church officials and priests state officials Cathlic Church lost both its economic and political independence Government used proceeds to pay off France's debt Alarmed peasants pushing them to oppose the assembly's reforms Louis Tries To Escape June 1791 While heading to the Austrian Netherlands, Louis was apprehended and returned to paris September 1791 New constitution
Louis reluctantly approved
Created a limited constitutional monarhy Created the Legislative Assembly Had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war King still held the executive power to enforce laws Jacobins Girondins Moderates Radicals
Opposed idea of monarchy
Wanted a democracy or a republic
Wanted change Immediately, violently if necessary
Sat on left hand side of hall Named after the Dominican Monks of France (known as Jacobins) because they initially met in a convent dedicated to St. James
Goal was to prevent any aristocratic uprisings that may circumvent the Revolution’s purpose
Influenced by Rousseau’s emphasis on equality, popular sovereignty, and civic virtue
Minority Wanted change and justice for the 3rd Estate
Afraid of violence, feared it would leave too much damage
Wanted constitutional monarchy or a republic
Sat in middle of hall Named for the Gironde department north of Paris where many of them came from
Wanted to start a revolutionary war against absolutist states such as Prussia and Austria (declared war on in 1792) Use to be radicals but felt the Revolution was moving too fast
Feared revolution would lead to many deaths and no change
Felt that rebels were in charge
Wanted a new king or a constitutional monarchy that would move slowly to a republic and democracy
Sat on right side of hall Sans-Culottes Did not wear the fancy breaches or pants of the aristocracy
Wanted to fix supply of bread
Fearful of Prussia who claimed they would destroy Paris if the king was hurt Stormed the Tuileries Palace and slaughtered 600 of the king's Swiss guards
Started the September Massacres Demanded wider political participation and establishment of a radical government, the Commune, in the city Forced the National Assembly to write a new constitution that would include universal male suffrage and end constitutional monarchy September 21 1792 France becomes a republic What faction would your character be in? How do you know that?
What faction would you be in if you personally lived back then? Fun Fact:
Catherine de Medici ordered the construction of the palace Robespierre Emigres Nobles and others who fled France
Hoped to undo the Revolution
Wanted to restore the Old Regime Jacobin
Wanted to build a "republic of virtue"
Leader of the Committee of Public Safety "The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror. If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror: virtue without which terror is murderous, terror without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice; it flows, then, from virtue." Assume the role of the character you were assigned You have been accused of being an enemy of the Revolution Write a testimony claiming your innocence Were the accused really guilty?
Is this what the 3rd Estate wanted when the revolution began? Explain. What caused the Reign of Terror?
Was it good for the Revolution?
Did the Reign of Terror have to happen?
How could the Reign of Terror been avoided?
What will happen next?