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Major Project #1

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Abby Campain

on 11 December 2012

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Transcript of Major Project #1

Vinyl Record Culture by Abby Campain
Rhetorics of New Media
English 308, Fall 2012, #47052
Professor Daniel Mahala
MWF 10-10:50 Vinyl Lives "This website includes interviews from the book, Vinyl Lives: The Rise and Fall and Resurgence of the American Independent Record Store" -Vinyl Lives Home Section See Interview Section with Cheapo Records Dust and Grooves "Dust & Grooves is a photography and interview project documenting vinyl collectors in their most natural and intimate environment: the record room. Dust & Grooves maintains the integrity and history of vinyl, as well as the musical heritage that goes along with every record in these collections." -Dust & Grooves About Section Quality Record Pressing (QRP) QRP is a subsidiary of Acoustic Sounds of Salina, Kansas. This modern record production company began in 2008 and has rereleased copies of classic records. This video is a montage showing the steps involved in the production of a record, specifically, a Cat Stevens classic.
Quality Record Pressing: The Process of Creating a Reissued Album (Cat Stevens' Tea For the Tillerman) EMI is big in Japan EMI, a major record label in Japan, wanted to reissue an album by jazz musician Lee Morgan and they chose to come all the way to Kansas to do so. A national online catalog of used vinyl based in Salina, Kansas. The company started by selling records, then expanded by purchasing Classic Records in 2011. QRP is a subdivision of Acoustic Sounds. Acoustic Sounds www.recordstoreday.com/home Record Store Day Started in 2007 by seven Friends, this self-proclaimed holiday is held on the third Saturday of April. In the January 10, 2008 issue of Time Magazine, Kristina Dell published the article "Vinyl Gets Its Groove Back". The article focuses on the rise in popularity in the twenty-something and teen generations. Vinyl Gets Its Groove Back Old Navy Record Tees My Boyfriend has these two: Third Man Records New Technology Collectors and Their Collections Vinyl Fashion Record Stores and Businesses The End Goldmine Magazine is a music collector's magazine. Michael Cumella, one writer for Goldmine, is host of a series of videos in which he interviews disc jockeys, music historians, and directors of music about their collections.
youtube.com/watch?v=jiDaLizpI2c Goldmine Magazine's WFMU - Where Records Go to LIVE! Turnaround is a seven minute documentary created by record store owner Blake Hennequin. In it he explains how he entered the record store business and how modern music formats have made people take records, or the tangible aspect of creating music for the masses, for granted. He places importance on the process of thinking through the sequence of an album and the documentary even features Daniel Baulch and Jackson Kay of Hollow Everdaze, who have created an album and plan to release it in the vinyl format. Turnaround - A Vinyl Records Documentary This is an image from a 1959 advertisement by RCA's Annual Report featuring a vinyl record player built right into the car.
Rather than the typical twelve inch record idealized by most of the record collectors featured in this project, the records used in the Ultra Micro Groove were seven inches in diameter, allowing for more grooves to be played upon. In 1956 Chrysler pushed to have what they called the "Highway HiFi" as its new standard of technology, boasting that it could play for nearly an hour which would keep the driver less distracted. Another feature is the different design that could keep the music playing smoothly even with bumps in the road. Because of this rigid design, however, this model of player wore out records more quickly than traditional players. As much as consumers wanted a portable device for listening to music without a radio, it took another decade for the first "practical" form of automotive music playing to catch on--the eight track. A Record Player for Your Car An interactive projection of a record onto the floor where users are made to jog along to the pace of the song, thus increasing or decreasing the speed of the music being projected. Daft Punk’s Around the World is the example record used. Vinyl Steps Out onto the Dance Floor Now there's a way that Apple lovers can reconnect with the aesthetics of vinyl record projection. Design Within Reach, a company that is known for creating unique furniture released a very limited number of the iVictrola for iPad. The design incorporates the new forms of media with old world style. Each uniquely handcrafted piece is made from an antique Magnavox horn attached to a walnut base. The natural shape of the horn is utilized to project the iPad's sound by the original acoustics of the design. The DWR website advertises that the iVictrola for iPad does not require outside electric power and can produce enough sound to fill a room. Listed price before all units sold: $985.00 The iGeneration These photographs are part of a collection by photography-based artist Philip Karlberg. The project, "33 RPM" depicts plated desserts spinning on a vinyl record on a turntable. Each dessert is paired with a famous song, artist, and album, with those iconic names slightly altered with humor. These photographs are taken with a low shutter speed to capture the three-dimensional essence of the dessert and the album. The dessert pictured is entitled "'Don't look back into the sun' by The Libertines: Sundae surprise." A New Type of Still Life This uniquely-designed patio roof is made entirely from vinyl records. It seems fitting that Matt Glassmeyer would create this, being a musician living in Nashville. Vinyl Roofing Three inventive designers from Amsterdam created a bicycle that plays records while the rider pedals. Merel Sloother, Liat Azulay, and Pieter Frank de Jong designed this prototype for a project entitled Feats per Minute. The pace of a typical bike ride is ideally suited to play a hip hop record because the speed at which the rider pumps the pedals determines how many rotations around the record per minute. The bike runs on a battery and comes equipped with an amplifier which puts out sound through the tiny horn on the handlebars. Does this sound like a realistic way of combining one's love of cycling and vinyl record music? It almost sounds too good to be true, and we must remember that this is merely a prototype. Some celebrities even outside of the music world collect vinyl records. This blog compiles photographs of famous people and the collections they hold dearly. Celebrity Collectors http://dangerousminds.net/comments/famous_people_hanging_out_with_their_vinyl Jack White Thrills Us Again Jack White, formally from The White Stripes, The Raconteurs, and The Dead Weather, released an album earlier this year, coincidentally on Record Store Day that was unlike any other record in existence. His album entitled "Blunderbuss" contained the song "Sixteen Saltines" and was filled with liquid. Discogs.com is an online database where users can catalog their collections. Each individual printing press and version are coded onto the record's label. When you locate the exact album version you own, there is a feature that allows users to list albums for sale. It shows the market rate of all indexed records at varying quality conditions. This link is to my boyfriend's online record collection. He already has about 130 records cataloged which has taken us about 6 hours so far to input. Adam's entire collection contains more than 700 records (and counting). Your Online Catalog www.discogs.com/ahoff Ace Hotels, a chain of boutique hotels located in modern cities like Los Angeles, Seattle, New York, and Portland tailor to a crowd who can appreciate their vinyl heritage. Their most expensive room, the superior deluxe front comes equipped with, among other amenities, a record player and crate of vintage records for the guests' vacation pleasure. Portlandia This work of art is part of an exhibition at the Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. This exhibition, titled after the ABBA song "Thank You For the Music" features contemporary artists' interpretations of how music sparks emotion, inspires artistic creation, and serves as a soundtrack for life events. The specific installation pictured here is by sculptor and found art artist Eduardo Balanza from Spain. This piece, which he calls "The Record Is Not Over Yet", is a stark-walled room with vinyl records covering most of the floor with a glowing neon sign. Balanza's goal was to represent the relation of modern art to a "lost art form". The Vinyl Medium Independent short film director Sean Dunne's 2008 documentary "The Archive" follows the owner of the world's largest record collection, Paul Mawhinney. The first part of the documentary describes how Mawhinney accumulated his "about one million albums" and "a million and a half singles" over 30+ years. Following his wife's persuasion, Mawhinney compiled them into a store called Record-Rama which is technically an archive because he has kept at least one copy of every record he's ever collected. He's stored them in a controlled environment in such a way that visitors can come browse and pick his brain. To grasp the size of Mawhinney's collection, the Library of Congress surveyed the collection and has calculated that of all the music created between 1948 and 1966, only about 17% is available in compact disc form. The significant part of this video is seen when Mawhinney explains why his record store went out of business. This can be seen in the short version available on YouTube, called "The World's Largest Record Collection" from 2:56 to 4:05. When he was forced to close his store in 2008 Mawhinney decided to sell his collection, estimated to be worth $50 million, but has only heard offers as much as $3 million and has not decided to sell yet. The Archive: How the World's Largest Record Collection is Getting Smaller youtube.com/watch?v=2j7F_4S2lgM Originally written in 1958 by Sonny Curtis of The Crickets and performed by The Crickets' lead singer, Buddy Holly, the song "I Fought the Law" has been covered by many musical groups with rising popularity and fame. Compared to the rather tame and lighthearted ballad style of this original, Joe Strummer, lead singer of The Clash, covered the song in 1979, delivering a sound very angry and oppressed. I think the delivery of The Clash's version delivers more meaning. Some lyrics have been changed from the original. One telling line from the song is "I needed money 'cause I had none/I fought the law and the law won.../Guess my race is won/I fought the law and the law won". After repeating that line nineteen times in the song, it ends with "I fought the law but" concluding that there is nothing that can be done or said because there is no authority higher than the law the singer sings about.

The message of this song, that "the man" causes nothing but trouble, is a common theme for The Clash. Strummer's disdain for authority is reflective of an idea presented in Lawrence Lessig's book, "Code, Version 2.0" from the chapter on Intellectual Property. I FOUGHT THE LAW and the LAW WON The examples Lessig uses to show how the law must change with the advancement in technology can easily translate to the record industry.
"...Copyright has always been at war with technology."
When books were first being published there were not copyright laws in place because the cost of reproducing pages was so high that by nature mass reprinting (by our "illegal standards") was not a problem.
"When technologies to record and reproduce sound emerged at the turn of the last century, composers were threatened by them."
It became possible for copies of audio recordings to be made and this required Congress to address the issue.
"...a consumer could do with the copyrighted content that he legally owned anything he wanted to do, without ever triggering the law of copyright."
Before 1909 this was the standard because it was accepted that if one owned a produced work, he could choose what to do with that work, by selling it, copying it, or sharing it.
After 1909, around the time that the cassette tape made personally recording sound material possible, Congress decided to create the Audio Home Recording Act which retained consumers the right to record onto cassettes for their own personal uses.
Lessig has described how the laws must change with the times. It seems that more now than ever we are a culture exposed to many forms of media, with many various subjects, causing us to be more dependent on those examples of created things around us. We can see vinyl record culture in this light in that an old form of technology that made it difficult to share, transport, store, and convert audio recordings has been replaced with compact digital forms that can be accessed and stored practically anywhere via electronic equipment. Government didn't need to place legal sanctions on vinyl rerecording because the laws of nature didn't propagate it, first that it is difficult and costly to duplicate records, and secondly that there are newer, faster, simpler forms of musical recording. Lawrence Lessig on Intellectual Property youtube.com/watch?v=FKIzjF25sP8 And they said you couldn't listen to records while you rode your bike. youtube.com/watch?v=TCxyIKYJ-xo youtube.com/watch?v=Gkw3txo0now http://www.vinylives.com/ My goal in this assignment is to shine light on the underground world of vinyl record collecting. By this I mean that records have become obsolete to most all people because of the wonderful advances in technology. Still, there are collectors who appreciate the unique texture vinyl adds to the music listening experience. Trends show that there are fewer collectors now and for good reason: digital music is easier to transport, simpler to convert, can be shared with others remotely, and can deliver pure, studio-quality sound. But vinyl collectors look beyond the convenience of digital music. They look for the lost culture, the way things were, and the art that goes into writing, recording, producing, and designing the unique quality that makes the 33. I'll mainly look at the range of music produced from the 1950s to the 1980s, and even current music on vinyl. I'll examine some examples of existing record stores, some famous collections, advances in technology, and visual art inspired by vinyl culture. Purpose store.acousticsounds.com/ Needle vs. Laser blogaboutmusic.co.uk/the-history-of-vinyl-records/ A Brief History of Sound On this fan-sponsored blog is an extensive history of recorded music. I think it does well to speak for itself. German designer Benjamin Brunn has created a tool for professional DJs. This set of four records called Colour Tracks contains nineteen genres of electronic music. The genres are organized chronologically and each genre is a separate, representative color. This can help DJs to understand the basic sounds of each genre and will help them to mix and create new mixed-genre pieces. DJs can also use this color-coordination system to organize other techno songs in their existing music libraries. My One and Only Example for Modern Club DJs "Vinyl sales rocketed in 2011 according to figures released by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The US numbers showed a 99.6% growth year-on-year in vinyl singles according to dollar value, as a result of a 19.7% growth in the number of units sold.LPs/EPs on vinyl, as opposed to singles, grew 34.2% in dollar value and 31.5% in terms of the number of units shipped.Despite the growth in sales, vinyl still makes up a small percentage of the overall market.While vinyl sales clocked-up just under six million units, this was dwarfed by CD sales at around 242m units and digital music at 1,411m units." 2011 Music Sales "The overall percentage split in sales in the US was divided 50/50 between digital and physical in 2011, compared to a 54/46 percentage split in favour of physical in 2010.The RIAA also notes that the music sales industry is worth less than half the total value of its peak in 1999, though total shipments were up last year for the first time since 2004." Data from whathifi.com/news/us-sales-of-vinyl-singles-grew-99-in-value-in-2011 Fuse Networks created a web series dedicated to famous disc jockeys and their love for vinyl. In this third installment, DJ Jazzy Jeff, or Jeffrey Allen Townes, often associated with Will "the Fresh Prince of BelAir" Smith, discusses how he began collecting records, how me met Will Smith as a neighborhood youth, and how he uses records as part of his job every day. fuse.tv/2012/04/crate-diggers-dj-jazzy-jeff-talks-meeting-will-smith-skipping-lunch-buy-records Gettin' Fresh with Jazzy Jeff dustandgrooves.com/ DJ Spock Works Cited Record players work by gently resting a movable arm over a record, which is impressed with tiny, spiral-cut grooves. The benefit of this machine is that it doesn't use a fragile and expensive diamond chip needle (which can range from $15 to $90 new). Rather, this player, said to be the most expensive record player ever at $15,000, uses a laser, which does not do minor but permanent damage to the record each time it is played, like a needle does. Purpose The purpose of this project #2, an extension of project #1, is to connect the progression of music listening from vinyl (analog) through digital and to current modes of listening through the internet . The goal is to plot the path that music listening has taken since the 1970s to today, by capitalizing on new technology, our newest rhetoric in media. Phonograph to MP3 The important things to note in this diagram are the phases of analog (1877-1983), digital (1983-1994), and mp3 (1994-present). Just When You Thought It Was Over As we know, the sale of physical records is decreasing every year, and especially in the sale of CDs, sales are dropping about 5% every year, according to the Recording Industry Association of America.

Because of this more than 900 independently-owned record stores have closed since 2003. It is estimated that only about 2700 physical stores still operate today, and that many's survival is dependent on their breakout into online sales according to the Almighty Institute of Music Retail.

Steven Russo, from New York, is one man who's dedicated to keeping record stores in business. He says that what he appreciates more than the unique selection is the "ability of people to talk to people about the music, to talk to personnel who are knowledgeable".

Amazingly, stories like his are common in the older generations of music listeners. What is most concerning about the failure of record stores is that this generation will not only lose a local source for browsing records, but part of their culture will be lost when members are unable to meet together in their communities. Part of listening to vinyl is the necessity to include others in the experience. This concept is lost on younger generations who experience music in a way based more on unique personal preferences.

This is also seen in that today songs are not as closely tied to the package in which they are presented. Vinyl records were designed as an experience. The order of songs mattered and rounded out the message of the album. They were also accompanied by artwork designed to convey the same message. Now, music is generally consumed as individual songs with many artists, genres, and generations mixed. This isn't to say that one way of listening to music is better than the other, but when the population of vinyl music consumers is gone, music won't be produced like that anymore. When the compact disc made its big debut in the 1980s, many thought this would be he final nail in the vinyl record's coffin. There weren't enough defenders of the form at the time and although today there are more, the not-so-obvious advantages of vinyl need to be advertised. If there will ever be a future generation that keeps the vinyl culture alive, it will have to rely on new vinyl records being produced.

"Nothing seems hipper than old-fashioned inconvenience," said James Aclkin, a defender of the art. “It takes a special kind of person to appreciate pops and clicks and imperfections in their music,” Golden Oldies Vinyl Comeback Authentic Groove the groove in a vinyl record,
magnified 100 times A Case for New Media In our 21st Century world, we don't produce or consume with the same carefree, "party (and buy, and overproduce, and generate industrial waste, and use outdated, inefficient, and polluting habits) like its 1999" mindset from the height of the vinyl era.

Vinyl records are made from PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, from a (biased?) study by Greenpeace has concluded, is the "worst plastic for the environment".

The say that the "production, use and disposal of PVC or vinyl, is a leading source of dioxin fallout in the environment".

Because records weigh more than twice that of CDs and digital downloads aren't tangible, the emissions from transportation are much higher with vinyl records. Black is the New Green According to Slate Reports, the trip to the store to purchase a CD causes more carbon emissions than it takes to produce it. Without the trip to purchase considered, the level of pollution is just about as much as much as it is to copy a CD at home.

The study also illustrated the sheer volume of energy required to operate computers for file sharing and internet access compared to the incredibly low cost, in comparison, of operating a turntable and stereo.

It also points out that if individuals had to purchase all their music in person from a store, they wouldn't be consuming (purchasing or merely stockpiling) nearly as much as they do from the internet. Generally, our musical collections are much larger than in past generations.

The greenest aspect of vinyl music listening is that records are rarely discarded. Most sales of records today are resales, and DIYers have come up with plenty of projects to keep you busy reusing your collection. We know that vinyl records aren't ever going to make an incredible comeback to take over MP3 usage. We know how technology works, or at least how the advances leave old, capable methods in the dust. We've seen it before. Can You Name These Antiquated Forms of Media? Answer Key (You Cheater): laserdisc, electric typewriter, television cart with VCR, press camera with flashbulb mechanism,

fax machine, betamax, radial telephone, map,

floppy disk and digital camera, mobile phone and Zach Morris, pager, and personal computer Just When You Thought It Was Over Williams (Graying): The neighborhood record store was once a clubhouse for teenagers, a place to escape parents, burn allowances and absorb the latest trends in fashion as well as music. But these days it is fast becoming a temple of nostalgia for shoppers old enough to remember “Frampton Comes Alive!’’
 the compact disc market fell about 25 percent between 1999 and 2005, according to the Recording Industry Association of America, a trade organization
Since late 2003, about 900 independent record stores have closed nationwide, leaving about 2,700, according to the Almighty Institute of Music Retail, a marketing research company in Studio City, Calif.
Steven Russo, 53, for instance, was looking for jazz CD’s. Mr. Russo, a high school teacher in Valley Stream, N.Y., said that he values the store for its sense of camaraderie among cognoscenti as much as its selection. “It’s the ability of people to talk to people about the music, to talk to personnel who are knowledgeable,” he said. Golden Oldies Vinyl Comeback We know that vinyl records aren't ever going to make an incredible comeback to take over MP3 usage. We know how technology works, or at least how the advances leave old, capable methods in the dust. We've seen it before. Can You Name These Antiquated Uses of Media? Answer Key (You Cheater): laserdisc, electric typewriter, television cart with VCR, press camera with flashbulb mechanism,

fax machine, betamax, radial telephone, map,

floppy disk and digital camera, cell phone and Zach Morris, pager, and personal computer However, there has been an interesting new trend in vinyl record sales. From an article by Steven Wells:
"Yes, we all know old-school plastic records have a certain charm. But so do old churches, horses, the monarchy...and pre-decimal coinage. That doesn't mean we want the return of threepenny bits, ...witch burning and streets knee-deep in dung from the royal family's horses, does it?" Why a new surge in vinyl consumption doesn't mean a thing Wells' Conclusion:
"The resurgence of vinyl is a symptom of the dread diseases of authenticity and nostalgia - the terrible co-joined twins of cultural decline." Some argue that just because an outdated form of media makes a resurgence, that doesn't result in a positive change for society or technology.

"[Schumpeter's] thesis is that in the natural course of things, the new only rarely supplements the old; it usually destroys it. The old, however, doesn't, as it were, simply give up but rather tries to forestall death or co-opt its usurper—a la Kronos—with important implications."
The Master Switch p. 28

So, we must cope with the ever-changing field of technology. We are more or less forced to adapt, ceding that the Kronos Effect is wholly unstoppable. Of course we can still utilize old forms of technology, as there's no law or sound reason why free individuals can practice what they wish, but it will most likely become more difficult to continue in old fashions. “With the telephone in the house comes a new companionship, new life, new possibilities, new relationships, and attachments for the old farm by both old and young”
The Master Switch p. 47 The Dawn of an Era “Again and again in the development of technology, full appreciation of an invention's potential importance falls to others—-not necessarily technical geniuses themselves-—who develop it in ways that the inventor never dreamed of. The phenomenon is hardly mystical: the inventor, after all, is but one person, with his own blind spots, while there are millions, if not billions, of others with eyes to see new uses that had been right under the inventor's nose.”
The Master Switch p. 47 Inventors as Legends “The evidence boils down to the idea that of its singularity, the computer and the Internet attempted to give individuals a degree of control, of decision-making power unprecedented in a communications system.”
The Master Switch p. 169-170 The Right to Choose "The Kronos effect: an effort by an existing media power to devour a suspected challenger in its infancy."
The Master Switch p. 179 Anthony, Sebastian. "The History of the Computer Storage (slideshow)." ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis, Inc., 3 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.extremetech.com/computing/90156-the-history-of-computer-storage-slideshow/8>.

"Audio/Visual Equipment List." College of the Pacific. University of the Pacific, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pacific.edu/Academics/Schools-and-Colleges/College-of-the-Pacific/Faculty/IT-Support/Equipment-Available-for-Checkout.html>.

Bryans, Nick. "8 Things Michael Gove Should Scrap/Bring Back." Shouting at Cows. N.p., 26 June 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.shoutingatco.ws/2012/06/26/8-things-michael-gove-should-scrapbring-back/>.

"Clear 746 Retro Telephone." Flickr. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://farm1.staticflickr.com/74/423055868_2138143887.jpg>.

"Cue the Music: Driven by Digital, Music Sales up in 2011." NielsenWire. The Nielsen Company, 11 May 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/consumer/cue-the-music-driven-by-digital-music-sales-up-in-2011/>.

Dugg. "A Very Deep Groove." I-downloader. N.p., 23 Mar. 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://i-downloader.blogspot.com/2010/03/very-deep-groove.html>.

"Edison Phonographs, Phonos, Cylinders, Posters, Gramaphones." EDISON CYLINDER PHONOGRAPHS And Cylinder Related Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://edisonphonos.com/index.html>.

"The Enviornment." Alpha Vinyl Record Pressing Inc. N.p., 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.alphavinylrecordpressinginc.com/index.php/albums-are-eco-friendly/>.

"Folded-Paper-Map." SampleStuff.com. N.p., 26 Aug. 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

"The Future of Cell Phones." No Title Required... N.p., 21 June 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

"General Pager: 7900." AIR Communication Solutions When It Matters. American International Radio, Inc, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.airadio.com/General-Pager-7900*productID_241-products_details>.

Greenpeace. "PVC/Vinyl the "Worst" Plastic for the Environment." PVC/Vinyl the "Worst" Plastic for the Environment. N.p., 22 Apr. 1997. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.greenpeace.org/majordomo/index-press-releases/1997/msg00100.html>.

1319656394-record_collection.jpg. Foundation, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.thelmagazine.com/binary/3a85/1319656394-record_collection.jpg>.

The Archive. Dir. Sean Dunne. Perf. Paul Mawhinney. Sean Dunne: Director. Very Ape Productions, Tariq Merhab, NonFiction Unlimited, 2008. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://veryapeproductions.com/Archive/>.

Clash - I Fought The Law (Live). Perf. Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, and Nicky Headon. Youtube. AirbrushRocks, 28 Dec. 2008. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKIzjF25sP8>.

Db, Nate. "Theo Watson: Vinyl Workout." Theo Watson: Vinyl Workout. Designbloom, 26 Apr. 2010. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/16/view/9988/theo-watson-vinyl-workout.html>.

Dell, Kristina. "Vinyl Gets Its Groove Back." Time Magazine Arts. Time Inc., 10 Jan. 2008. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1702369,00.html>.

Design Within Reach. Advertisement. Design Within Reach Accessories Books | Music IVictrola for IPad. Design Within Reach, 2012. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.dwr.com/product/ivictrola-for-ipad.do?sortby=ourPicks>.

1001 Changes
Brought to You By the Internet "A thoroughly computerized world is also one bound to alter conditions of human sociability. The point of many applications of microelectronics, after all, is to eliminate social layers that were previously needed to get things done."
Mythinformation, The New Media Reader "Despite greater efficiency, productivity, and convenience, innovations of this kind do away with the reasons people formerly had for being together, working together, acting together. Many practical activities once crucial to even a minimal sense of community life are rendered obsolete."
Mythinformation, The New Media Reader As described in the NMR, changes brought about by the internet require methods of interaction between individuals, to be reorganized. Here the example of computers replacing bank tellers results in less face-to-face human interaction and can't promise a completely error-free, user-friendly system.

Advocates of internet music listening could make the argument that the internet creates more interaction through music. For example, consider how music used to be shared. You could borrow a record to play at home, but after it is returned, you don't have access to it. Today friends can share music collections. This can be done to show others what your interests include and then they have the capability to make a copy for themselves to keep.

This is the dilemma of copyright and shared ownership. In short, if your friend was borrowing your record, you did not have access to it. Now, just because your friend has copied your library, that doesn't limit your access to it or theirs, now or in the future.

The point made by the article is that when the internet grows in size in function, users will give up their old practices. This will make them more susceptible to change from a political prospective and influence from the media sources that convene on the internet. The Future of Group Music Listening The way music enthusiasts used to interact allowed for more interaction while shopping for music, as well as in the culture of group listening. Today, the trends have moved away from such a communal activity of music listening in public. Music that can be purchased online, can be done in a much more anonymous way. The internet does allow users the opportunity to share, or rather publicize, interests, even as much as projecting up-to-the minute playlists.

Members of the vinyl music culture, for example, must make special efforts to interact with each other. They can still meet in public spaces to exchange music, because of it being a physical form, and to maintain musical standards of previous eras. The internet has the advantage of allowing users to connect across physical space. Because of the size of this microculture, the internet makes it easier to find others who share these interests. Current Digital Music Consumption Note where music listening happens, the popularity of internet music listening, the value of legal downloads, and the employment statistics as a result from music downloads. From 2008 on the sales of vinyl records, in new and used form, is on the rise in the United States.

In contrast, the sale of physical albums (CDs), as a whole, is in a sharp decline.

Even at its height of 3.6 million albums sold, that only accounts for 1.2% of total physical sales in the USA.

Credit for the increase in vinyl record sales is undeniably due to the popularity of Record Store Day, which sees greater success every year.

Record Store Day began in 2007, so you do the math here. Music listening is like this in a way. We choose what to listen to depending completely on our tastes and moods and what we have access to. Before computers, you could have total control over what you listened to because you controlled the device that presented it. (However, the radio is an obvious example of the opposite of this.) But now the majority of music listening happens via computers that are trained to cater to your tastes as you would naturally do. However, access to the internet presents ways for companies can advertise to you. They can track what you've listened to, make assumptions about what you like, and can impose on you its version of what you should like, all focused on what benefits they can gain from this interaction. This seems like the opposite of what I want in a music listening experience. The irony of the development of computers and the internet is that of their design. Instead of giving individuals more control over their access to outside elements, that control has been taken by those who operate the internet.
Haven't we seen this before? This is a theme that is seen in all of the history of music listening. In fact, this is seen in most all forms of technological advancement. Things that were invented for one purpose are often made popular for another purpose. Consider the way the telephone developed from a way to relay information between two physically distant locations. Its technology ignited the invention of many forms of entertainment. So modern music listening is indebted to the many other forms of technology that developed alongside it. So much is owed to Thomas Edison, without whom we would not have the convenience and technology of our entertainment-driven age. prominent feature of album artunique decorconnection to previous generationsretro allurea cultural artifacta hobby worth the inefficiencymusic in a literary form DJ James Adams - Sounds. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.djjamesadams.com/images/record.jpg>.

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