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English Language Throughout Time Finished
Transcript of English Language Throughout Time Finished
The English Language Throughout Time
Proto Indo European Language Tree
Proto-Indo-European --> Proto-Germanic --> West Germanic --> Anglo-Frissian --> Old English --> English
400AD - 1100
The celts are the earliest inhabitants of the British Isles.
Romans brought many things (organised rule, roads and pretty much awesomeness), but they were kicked out when the natives flipped Julius Caesar the bird.
Anglo Saxon dialects formed the basis of Old English. About 400 Anglo Saxon texts survived.
For a hundred years the Vikings controlled most of Eastern England, before being pushed into north East England by King Alfred the Great. The Vikings remained there till the late 900s (in Danelaw), while King Alfred used the English language to develop a sense of national identity amongst the English.
The Normans transformed England massively. For over 300 years, French was the language of high society (nobility, aristocrats and high-powered officials). French was used in political documents, administration and literature. Latin remained the language of the church and scholars, but English became the language for the masses, being relegated to a 3rd rank language in it's own ccountry..
1800 - To infinity and bey0nd!
1100 - 1500
Early New English
1500 - 1800
Changes during Old English
Changes during Middle English
Phonetics & Phonology
Morphology & Lexicology
Changes during Early New English
Changes during Modern English
Following this war, many people regarded French as the language of the enemy, thus rising the popularity of English. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are created and literacy increases while books are still copied by hand(therefore expensive and remaining out of the masses reach).
William Caxton introduces the printing press to England, and prints all kinds of texts; mythic tales, popular stories, over 20,000 books are printed in the following 150 years. Printers make choices about which words, grammar and spellings to use, which shape the language and sow the seed for a standardised language. Renewed interest in art, theatre and science, as well as explorers discovering the New World.
Human knowledge is continuing to stretch into new areas, sucha s medicine, astrology, botany & engineering. Many scholars believe that the English Language is chaotic and in desperate need of codification. Books teaching proper grammar, pronunciation & spelling are increasingly popular. Samuel Johnson publishes his famous dictionary in 1755.
A century of world wars, technological transformation and globalisation. The language is still growing, expanding to incorporate new jargon, slang, technologies, toys, foods and gadgets.
Christian Missionaries, led by St Augustine, converted Anglo Saxon Pagans to Catholic Christianity. The language of the church was Latin, and so many new Latin word were injected in the English Language. English developed into four main dialects (resembling Modern English):
Anglo Saxons 449AD
St Augustine 597 AD
100 Year War: 1337 – 1450s
Many Latin words are introduced, mainly concerning religion, medicine, law or literature: Scritpure, collect, immortal, history, library, solar, recipe and genius.
Thousands of French words became embedded in the English vocabulary, most of power: crown, castle, court, parliament, army, mansion, gown, beauty, banquet, art, poet, romance, chess, colour, duke, servant, peasant, traitor and governor.
The raiders brought in near 2000 new words. Words derived from Norse include: anger, awkward, cake, die, egg, freckle, muggy, reindeer, silver, skirt and smile. Places such as Whitby and Grimsby also have norse origin names.
About one third of Anglo-Saxon vocabulary has survived in Modern English, many of them our most basic words: earth, house, food, sing, night and sleep. By the 7th century, England is reffered to (by latin speakers) as Anglia – the land of the Angles – which later develops into England.
Many words reffering to religion: altar, mass, school and monk. But some normal words aswell: fork, spade, spider, tower and rose.
Words added because of explorers around the globe:
Latin: atmosphere, explain, enthusiasm, skeleton and utopian.
French: Bizarre, chocolate, explore, moustache and vogue.
Itatlian: Carnival, macaroni, violin.
Arab: Harem, jar, magazine, sherbet.
Turkish: coffee, yoghurt, kiosk.
Spanish: tomato, potato, tobacco.
Renaissance 1476 – 1650
During this time of inventions and contraptions, of science and industry, the language is changing (and increasing) to accommodate new ideas.
Victorian writers write over 60,000 novels.
EXCLUDED WORDS: Words that Johnson didn’t like: bang, budge, fuss, gambler, shabby and touchy.
Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1800s
New Words: biology, taxonomy, caffeine, cityscape, centigrade, watt, bacterium, chromosome and claustrophobia. Words brought in by the economy include: slump, inflate, boom and depressions.
Words brought in by the child labour: Child labour, and "Please sir, may I have some more?".
Words: Gasmasks, gobstoppers, mini skirts, mods, rockers, cappuccino, chicken tikka masala and pizzerias.
1900s to present day
Celts – 500BC -43BC
Words: not many have lived on in English Language, but many places have Celtic Origin names, such as London, Dover and Kent, and the rivers Thames & Wye
Romans 43BC – 450AD
Only 200 Latin loanwords are inherited from the Romans, and most of them were coined by roman soldiers and merchants: Win (wine), Candel (candle), belt and weall (wall).
Runes were an ancient germanic alphabet, consisting of 24 symbols used to represent sounds, words and meanings (for divination).
Runes were a strong part of Old English, having been settled by the three germanic tribes: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. Old English was written using the Anglo-Saxon runic alphabet, which had 33 runes.
Runes were believed to hold power, and were thus used in paganistic rituals.
Old English gained a few of its letters/sounds from this runic alphabet.
The Old English Syntax was very flexible due to it's system of inflections/declensions. Declensions are when specific inflections are use in words to show certain pieces of information (tense, singular/plural, etcetera). This meant word order didn't really matter in sentences, as long as the right inflections were used, although the verb was always placed second, though.
This change was very important and critical to the English Language as we have a heavy use of some inflections (conjugation, adjectives) today.
The English language had absorbed a ton of words up until this time period, having lost most of it's Celtic vocab (keeping the names), retaining most Latin words (mainly referring to church) and the Viking's (who contributed a wide variety of words).
With the Norman invasion, French (it's ancestor, atleast) became the language for the upper class, while English remained spoken by the peasants. By the time they stopped using french, over 10,000 french words had been absorbed into the English Language, most of which referred to the 'high class' version: cow (for the suckers at the bottom) and beef (for the toffs up top).
This had a friggin huge impact on the english vocabulary, giving birth to many synonyms.
During Early New English, contractions and elisions became commonplace. Examples are with 'would', I and he became "I'd, he'd", and this happened with a lot of other words resulting in many that we still use today "I'll, she'll, we'll".
explain the effect it had on the English Language, but
be too be easy.
Due to the advancements in computers and technology, the internet has had a massive hand in shaping the english language. Abbreviations and slang terms are more prominent than ever. Who hasn't gone onto Urban Dictionary to find out that the definition of their name is a 6 foot cool, black guy who does flips and gets all the ladies.
FFS ----------> Friggin Friggin Soup
WTF ----------> Wednesday Tuesday Friday
STFU ----------> Super Troopers Forget Umbrellas
GTFO ----------> Grill Train Fire Omen
LOL ----------> Lick Oliver's Lollipop
OMG ----------> Over My Gaucamole
LMAO ----------> Loving My Aeronautical Oven
GD ----------> Giggy Dy!
NP ----------> No Police
ILY ----------> I Love Yoghurt!
Morphology and Lexicology
How English came from the Proto-Indo-European Languages
Codification of English
The English we speak today comes from the London Dialect, which was chosen because:
The Court of the Lord Chancellor (the Chancery) was in the City of Westminster, 3 kilometres away from London. This was the centre of government administration and produced lots of documents written in London English.
London was the agricultural and economic hub of the time
Chaucer's literary genius helped give prestige to the London Dialect, as well as the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, releasing educated people, who all spoke London English.
In 1476, William Caxton set up the first printing presses in Westminster. Suddenly books were produced at a fraction of the price and much faster - all in London English
London English was both geographically and linguistically midway between the two dialect extremes - Northern and Southern. It had the advantage of being a natural compromise.
The standardisation of English was a big deal, as it turned Great Britain from a land with people speaking different dialects and languages to a United Country, all under one language.
1755 - Samuel Johnson's Dictionary
The invention of the dictionary was very critical to the development of the English Language, as it helped to further standardise English and solidify spelling, context and meaning of the growing vocabulary.
One of his best innovations was the use of quotations in his definitions, illustrating the meaning of the word by showing it in use. This tradition is carried on in dictionaries today still.
The British Library Board. "1755 - Johnson's Dictionary." 1755 - Johnson's Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Aug. 2014. <http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/dic/johnson/1755johnsonsdictionary.html>.
"Discourse Analysis." The Subsystems of the English Language. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2014. <http://thesubsystemsoflanguage.tumblr.com/discourseanalaysis>.
"Subsystems of English." The English Language. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2014. <http://english--language.weebly.com/subsystems-of-english.html>
"Middle English." Changes in the english language. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2014. <http://englishchangesovertime.weebly.com/middle-english.html>.
"Language Timeline." Language Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2014. <http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/changlang/across/languagetimeline.html>.
Around 1500B.C, one tribe left the Indo-European homeland (found to be somewhere in northern Europe).
They (now known as the Germanic) then began to create sound and grammar changes, which after much time and seperation from Proto-Indo-European, became Proto-Germanic.
As this new tribe spread throughout europe, their languages eventually split and became the three main branches of germanic: West, North and East.
East Germanic became Gothic (which is ded (RIP in pasta))
North Germanic is the parent language of modern scandinavian languages
West Germanic ==> Anglo-Frissian ==> Old English ==> English!!
Discourse Analysis is the study of connected sentences, in both written and spoken English.
This has remained relatively the same over time, we write one way, we talk another (the former being more formal, the latter more casual).
But due to our use of social media and communication over the internet, the line between written English and spoken English is more blurred than ever. We have begun to write English as if we were speaking it, usually making texts much more like transcripts of what we've said than formal documents, as well as making our texts much more concise and the extensive use of acronyms.
Up until this period, every letter in a word was pronounced, meaning what you read was exactly what you said. A pronunciation shift happened, and silent letters started to appear: the most known being the silent letter 'e' at the end of words.
This change has a noticeable effect now, with classic examples being "knight" and "Wednesday".
The Great Vowel Shift (approx 1350 to 1700) was a massive sound change that affect all the long vowels in the English language. All vowels moved upwards, as in if they were made in the lower part of the mouth, then they moved to a higher part.
This change in pronunciation, without a change in spelling, led to a terrible match between our spelling, and our orthography.
Due to the Industrial Revolution, a lot of new words were invented, either from pre-existing words, words from other languages, or are given an existing word, with it's meaning changed. These sorts of semantic changes, a narrowing of meaning, occurred often, when a word gained a new meaning, but due to the confusion, eventually lost it's old one. An example would be 'Engine', which used to mean any mechanical contraption, but since the Industrial Revolution its moved to a machine "with mechanical power/turns power into motion".
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