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Transcript of Bogs
-Found in wet, bog areas.
-Grows best in cool, acidic soil (pH of 3.0-5.0).
-Grows larger and faster in shaded areas.
-Favors moist areas, with well drained land (Rook). Population: Reproductive Behavior: Sensitivity to Environment: Bog Laurel Habitat Location of Bogs/Fens in Minnesota Northern Leopard Frog http://www.nps.gov/zion/naturescience/amphibians.htm http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/snapshots/ecosystems/bogs_fens.html Surface Conditions Food Web Energy Pyramid Invasive species Northern bog Lemming http://zoo4950.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/2152122145_d3f8009b92_o1.jpg Generally found in wet habitats containing Sphagnum Moss and shrubs.
Within Minnesota, Northern Bog Lemmings are usually found in open bog habitats.
They build nests out of grass in underground burrows or underneath logs (NBL). Northern Bog Lemmings reproduce through sexual reproduction. Their breeding season lasts from May-August and pregnancy lasts only 3 weeks. On average, they have litters of 4, but a total of 8 per litter is possible. Northern Bog Lemmings reach maturity at 5-6 weeks (NBL). Northern Bog Lemmings populate portions of northern U.S. They are a rare Species who are not very common in any specific location (NBL). Population density of the northern bog lemming may be up to three dozen per acre (IUCN). Population Leopard frogs in Minnesota have been in have experienced a decline in population since the '60s. Disease, pollution, and destruction of habitat are the main reasons for this (NLF). Reproduction
Behavior Northern leopard frogs don't reproduce until they reach 2 or 3 years old. Their mating season begins in late April when male frogs begin calling to attract females. Female frogs are able to lay more than 6,000 fertilized eggs which are submerged and attached to vegetation in the water. Within four months, young leopard frogs leave the water to look for food on land (NLF). Made by:
& Jill Hooper Human usefulness Sensitivity to environmental upsets Example or a symbiotic relationship Leopard frogs are commonly captured and used for fishing bait. They are also used often in biology labs for teaching purposes (NFL). Climate
of a bog ecosystem http://home.howstuffworks.com/bog-garden3.htm Habitat The breeding habitat of the northern leopard frog is found in marshes, wetlands, bogs, and ponds (NLF). In the winter, frogs reside in aquatic habitats (NLF). The habitat of the Northern Leopard Frog ranges with the seasons. In the summer seasons, these frogs are found in grasslands or wet fields (NLF). Flies share a parasitic relationship with the frogs. A fly will lay it's eggs near frog eggs, and when the fly eggs hatch, the larvae will feed on the frog embryos. This can kill all of the undeveloped frogs, which entitles no benefit for the frogs in this relationship (JSTOR). Changes in the environment, caused by pollution, is one of the main reasons the frog population has been declining (NFL). http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/lichens/lichens.html Lichens The bog laurel plant can be reproduced in two separate ways: - The seed of the bog laurel plant is scattered by wind and is planted into the ground where a new plant will begin to grow (Rook). Through vegetative propagation: By seed germination: -The bog laurel is also asexually reproduced through vegetation propagation (Rook). -Vegetative propagation: the cloning of a parent by taking different plants parts (stems, leaves, etc..) and planting them to create a new plant with all the characteristics of the parent plant (Thompson). Human usefulness: -The bog laurel doesn't have any particular use for humans (USDA).
- Don't let it's pretty appearance fool you, the Bog Laurel is a poisonous plant and is toxic if a significant amount is consumed (Rook). Nutrition Nutrition The Northern Leopard Frog is considered a secondary consumer. The diet of a Northern Leopard frog consists of most insects, spiders, snails, and other small frogs. The tadpole of the Northern Leopard Frog is considered a herbivore because it's diet includes algae and small plant particles (EPA). Northern Leopard Frogs consume other organisms to obtain energy, making them heterotrophs. - - - Description of bogs in Minnesota The diet of the Northern Bog Lemming consists mainly of grass and vegetation making them primary consumers. Minnesota bogs are large areas with dampened soil. The soil is very acidic and very nutrient poor. Because of this there is little decomposition and a large accumulation of organic matter. This also makes it hard for many organisms to adapt to these conditions and call a bog their home (Organic). Nutrition: -The Bog Laurel is a primary producer, it receives energy from the sun and requires slightly acidic soil for growth (USDA).
-It is considered an autotroph because it produces its own food. Example of a Symbiotic Relationship: They are considered heterotrophs because they consume plants to gain needed energy (NBL). - http://ellishollow.remarc.com/?p=697 Bog Grass http://web.extension.illinois.edu/wildlife/directory_show.cfm?species=vole Northern Bog Lemming http://www.grasshoppercontrol.com/ Grasshopper http://09au1905.wordpress.com/a-p-biology-spring-10/lichen/ Reindeer Lichen Northern Leopard Frog Garter Snake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Northern_Leopard_Frog_(Lithobates_pipiens).jpg http://www.floridasnature.com/reptile_amph.3.htm Producer Primary Consumer Primary consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer In bog laurel habitats, the planting density per acre ranges from 1,700-2,700 (USDA). The Bog Laurel is rather sensitive to environmental upsets.
It has a low tolerance for drought and requires at 12 inches of precipitation for growth (USDA). Energy from the sun Producers: 100% Primary consumers: 10% Secondary
1% (Bog Laurel) (Northern Bog Lemming) (Northern Leopard Frog) Heat energy Heat energy Heat energy
-Buckthorn is an invasive species in a bog ecosystem.
-This plant came from Europe in the mid-1800's.
-It is considered an invasive species because it competes with native plants for nutrients and moisture in the soil.
-It also reduces wildlife habitat and threatens the future of bog ecosystems (Buckthorn). -Bogs have nutrient poor soil that is covered with undecomposed matter.
-The water and surrounding soil are also very acidic
-The surface of bogs are very wet as peat builds up and retains water.
-The term blanket bog describes the accumulation of peat that overlays the surface of bogs ("Organic"). Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism An example of parasitism in the bog ecosystem would be when a fly lays it's eggs on frog eggs and the larvae feed on them (JSTOR). Commensalism Spanish moss has a commensalism relationship with surrounding trees. The moss depends on a host for support. Because the moss does not take advantage of the tree for nutrients or water, the tree isn't harmed ("The Longleaf Alliance"). Mutualism: Abiotic and Biotic Factors of Bogs Abiotic factors: Biotic factors: Abiotic Factors are those that are not alive which include objects such as rocks temperature within a bog. Biotic factors are those that are alive such as plants (Bog Laurel) and animals (Northern Bog Lemming, Northern Leopard Frog). Habitat -Lichens are found in bog ecosystems
-They require a fresh habitat with clean air for survival (lichen Habitat). Population -The population size of lichens depends on the space it has for growth in any given area.
-Lichens populate areas with abundant water supplies, nutrients, and clean air (lichen Habitat). Reproductive Behavior -Lichen reproduce through vegetative propagation.
-Parts of lichen break off and move by water or animals to where they begin to grow (Lichen). Nutrition: Lichens demand clean air, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen to grow (Lichen Habitat). Sensitivity to Environment Lichens are very sensitive to environmental insults because they absorb everything through their cortex.
Air pollution greatly affects lichens because of this (Lichen Habitat). Usefulness The job of a lichen is to make new, nutrient rich soil (lichen).
This job is very important because bog ecosystem have poor soil that lack nutrients. Symbiotic relationship Certain lichens have a parasitic relationship with leaves of plants. They grow on, or in the leaves and end up damaging the plant (Lichens). Northern Bog Lemmings aren't very sensitive to environmental upsets, although their range of habitat has recently retreated to northern bog habitats. (NBL). The use of this species is unknown because it is such a rare species to the state of Minnesota, and are not commonly found (NBL). Northern bog lemmings use grass to their advantage by creating nests. In this relationship the grass is harmed where as the lemmings benefit (NBL). Lichens are the result from the mutualistic relationship between fungus and algae (Lichen). The Bog Laurel is mutual with the soil it grows in. The soil provides a stable living area to the plant and in return the Bog Laurel produces nutrients in the soil. Bogs rely specifically on precipitation as a water source, so their climate includes an abundant amount of rainfall (Organic soil wetlands). The environment is cold, wet, nutrient poor, and acidic due to a cool and moist climate (Organic Soil Wetlands). THE END