Transcript of Ancient China
hominoid Population By: Alex K., Chloe O., and Zeke E. Ancient China Dynasties Xia (Hsia) Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Qin Dynasty thanks for watching! if youre wondering what the thing in the bottom corner of the screen is, it looks like this Ancient China has many famous landmarks. From the Great Wall, to the life size army, China has a lot of cool stuff! Landmarks One of China's most known landmarks is The Great Wall of China. This 4,000 mile long wall is considered the symbol of China. It is also the largest man-made structure on earth. It was made during the Qin Dynasty, and then refurbished during the Ming Dynasty. Today, very little of the original wall built during the Qin dynasty exists. It was built to protect the country from Mongolian invaders. The Great Wall of China Forbidden City The Forbidden City is in Beijing. It is where the Emperor, his family, and his many servants lived. Ordinary Chinese people were not allowed inside the heavily guarded walls. This is what it looked like. The Ming Tombs The emperor lived a very busy life. I would go into detail, but lets save that for other sections. For now, lets just talk about the city itself. it was used for an imperial palace only from the Ming Dynasty to the Quing Dynasty. now that we know when it was in use, lets move on to the next landmark The Ming Tombs are a short distance away from Beijing. The pathway to the tombs is guarded by hundreds of stone animals. There are thirteen tombs. Temple of Heaven Religion Clothing Education Economy The Temple of Heaven, literally meaning the Altar of Heaven, is a group of religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of central Beijing. The complex was visited by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest. It has been regarded as a Taoist temple.The temple was constructed from 1406 to 1420 during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, who was also responsible for the construction of the Forbidden City in Beijing. The complex was extended and renamed Temple of Heaven during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in the 16th century. The Jiajing Emperor also built three other prominent temples in Beijing, the Temple of Sun in the east, the Temple of Earth in the north, and the Temple of Moon in the west . Art Music Food The Xia dynasty lasted from about 1994 BCE to 1766 BCE. The Xia dynasty is sometimes called the first dynasty. The Xia dynasty was said to have ended because one of the Xia rulers mistreated his people and was overthrown by them. There aren't any historical records to prove this story. The rulers in this dynasty were Qi, Tai Kang, Zhong Kang, Xiang, Xaio Kang, Zhu, Huai, Mang, Xei, Bu Xiang, Joing, Jin, Kong Jia, Gao, Fa, and Jie. During it’s time the Xia dynasty accomplished many things; they were the the first to irrigate, produce cast bronze and a strong army. Xi Zhong is said to have invented a wheeled vehicle. King Yu was the first king to be succeeded by his son instead of a random man. This made the Xia the first Chinese dynasty. The Shang dynasty lasted from about 1766 BCE to 1027 BC. This is the longest lasing dynasty. The Shang dynasty ruled over regions of northern and central China. Its capital city was located at Anyang. This dynasty was based on agriculture; wheat, and barley were the major crops that were grown. In addition to the crops, pigs, dogs, sheep, and oxen were raised. The Shang dynasty was also advanced in metal forging. Bronze ships, weapons, and tools from that era were dug up by archeologists. The king of the Shang dynasty only really ruled overe the higher-ups and the military. Underneath the military class was the priest class. The priests kept the records of the government and were also in charge of enforcing religion. The religion in the time of the Shang dynasty was based on ancestor worship and a worship of many gods; the main god was called Shang Ti or the Lord on High. The fall of the Shang dynasty was because the last king was killed by a king from a rival kingdom, the Chou kingdom. Some of the kings in this dynasty were Da Yi (Tang the Great), Tai Ding, Wai Bing, Zhong Ren, and Tai Jia. During it’s time the Shang dynasty accomplished many things; they made earliest known glazed pottery, they invented the first potter’s wheel, they industrialized bronze casting, they were some of the first to industrialize the making of wine and food, weapons and tools were modernized, advancements in jade carving were made, they were also the first to theorize that the year was 365 days. The first appearance of Chinese script was dated to this dynasty. Remains have been found of some of the first palace foundations and burials. The Zhou dynasty lasted from about 1122 BCE to 256 BC. They were the first dynasty to break into sections (i.e eastern Zhou and Western Zhou). The Zhou society was based on agriculture. During that time, the land was divided among the peasants so they could grow crops. The religious practice of the Zhou empire reflected their way of life. The Zhou kings believed that they were given a duty from heaven to rule. The kings prayed and sacrificed to Shang Ti, now called T'ien (Heaven), and to their ancestors. The lords prayed to the local nature gods and to the gods of agriculture and also to their ancestors. If any sacrifices or prayers were missed, terrible fortune was predicted to fall on the territory or kingdom of the leader. Some of the kings in this dynasty were Fa, Song, Zhou, Xia, and Man. During it’s time the Zhou dynasty accomplished many things; they modernized casting Iron, updated their weapons, they were the first to create Chariots , Dye, and Glass. Astronomy, Magnetism, Math, Fractions, and Geometry were of a deeper understanding. Plowing was also modernized along with Pesticides and Fertilizers. Acupuncture was first theorized. Human sacrifice appears to have disappeared around this time. This was also the golden age of Chinese philosophy. The ying-yang idea was said to have come from this dynasty. The Qin Dynasty lasted from about 221 BCE to 206 BCE.The Qin Dynasty was one of the major turning points in Chinese history. The emperor of this era wanted to conquer the states that were at war. This emperor succeeded and China was one nation again. When he conquered all the states at war, the emperor pronounced himself as the first emperor of China. This China was larger than it ever was. This was the first time others acknowledged the existence of another race of people. The first emperor not only unified China, but made a standard writing, weights, and measures throughout his kingdom. During this time, many ideaas were outlawed; only the ideas of the emperor were given official permission to be used. In 213 BCE, all the books expressing other ideas were burned except for the copies held in the Qin imperial library. In the emperor’s mind the only way to keep his nation together was to have all his subjects think the same way. The Qin Empire was huge. The first emperor pushed China's borders South to modern day Vietnam, and Korea. Of all the accomplishments of the Qin, the best known is the Great Wall of China. The construction of the Great Wall came with massive financial debt as well as the hundreds of fatalities. This led to the people being angry at the Qin emperor. Not only that, the authors were not happy with the emperor either; the books they made were burned at his hands. By this time, the emperor had grown old and he did not want to dieHe wanted to be immortal. He set all the court scientists and doctors to work to make some sort of medicine that would make him a god. The doctors came up with a deadly solution that they truly thought would work. The medicines the doctors prescribed were pills that contained Mercury which eventually lead to the emperor’s death. . During it’s time the Qin dynasty accomplished many things (besides the making of the great wall of China); The Unification of Currency began, as well as the unification of weights and measurements. Three major water conservancy projects were issued during this dynasty because of a drought. A mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang was erected as the first Chinese tomb to an emperor. Over 6,000 Terracotta warriors were found and dated to this dynasty. Books and writing were proclaimed to have to have same characters. Inscribed stone was found from this period. Some emperors from this dynasty were Qín Shǐ Huáng, Zhèng, Qín Èr Shì, Húhài, Qín Sān Shì, and Ziying. The First Han Dynasty T Han dynasty lasted from about 206 BCE to 9 AD, to be the last dynasty in “ancient” China. From the Qin dynasty a rebel leader, Liu Pang, took control of the former Qin empire. He became the self-proclaimed emperor in 206 BCE. He established the Han dynasty. The Han empire was made using what the Qin had already set up. The only difference is that some of the policies were modified, especially those that had caused the Qin to fall. Taxes were also reduced quite measureably, while the government played a smaller part in the policies concerning money. One of important contributions of the Han was the establishment of Confucianism as the official ideology. This changed the way that the empire was run. Before, emperors appointed people to positions regardless of their capability and brainpower to do these jobs. Written examinations were now used to identify the best qualified people for the job. In the 2nd century BCE, an university was established to teach students the five classics of the Confucian school to prepare them to become one of the emperor’s men. The height of the Han Empire was under the rule of Emperor Wu Ti, who ruled the Han Empire from 140 to 87 BCE. Emperor Wu wanted to expand his kingdom and did, but at a price. The officers of the Han kingdom did not know it but the days when the government was able to ignore the economy, were over. This led to the re-establishing of the legalist philosophy; taxes and old policies were brought back. This did not go well with the people and land owners opposed it too. The peasants did not like the change and a revolt began. Some of the emperors from this dynasty were Kao Ti, Hui Ti, Lu Hou, Wen Ti, and Ching. During it’s time the Han dynasty accomplished many things; expansion of the Great Wall of China was completed, expansion of the size of the empire took place, paper making was modernized, acupuncture was also modernized, astronomers came up with more theories, calligraphy was invented, and the was Silk road trade route was discovered. As always is the case, the nine following dynasties had their ups and downs but they were all eventually resolved.he first government transportation Government Transportation: People in ancient China first built ships so that they could travel easily from one part of the coast to another. Soon after that the Chinese began to make canoes and rafts to have a faster way to travel out to sea. While sailors had their ships and the wealthy had a chariot pulled by oxen most people couldn't afford these things so the common person walked or rode a horse. Military types on had horses, chariots, and their feet for transportation. sports In China, Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism were the three main religions. Confucianism was the main belief. Buddhism and Daoism were less practiced beliefs. Other beliefs were hardly practiced, if at all. Confucianism is a religion that prays to heaven and ancestors. But, a traditional Chinese religion has a religious belief but no philosophy, Confucianism has no actual religious belief but it does have a philosophy. Buddhism is both a religion and a philosophy. Daoism is both a religion and a school of thought. The Terracotta Warriors People in China usually wore tunics (like long t-shirts). Women wore long tunics down to their ankles or to the ground, and they generally paired these tunics with belts. Men wore shorter ones down to their knees. Sometimes they wore jackets over them. In the winter, when it was cold, people wore insulated jackets over their tunics, and sometimes pants under them. The poor people made their clothes of hemp or Ramie. Rich people wore silk. Most people in China, men and women, had long hair. People said that you got your hair from your parents and so it was disrespectful to them to cut it. Foot Binding In March 1974, a group digging a well in the Shaanxi province in Northwest China found pieces of a clay figure—the first evidence of what would turn out to be one of the greatest discoveries of modern world. Near the tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi which was yet to be excavated was found an extraordinary underground treasure: an army of life-size soldiers and horses, burried for more than 2,000 years. Over the past 35 years, archaeologists have located about 600 pits. Some are hard to get to, but three major pits are easy to get to, inside the four-acre Museum of the Terracotta Army, built around the discovery site and opened in 1979. In one pit, long rows of warriors, put back together from broken pieces, stand. The soldiers are all different. One other pit inside the museum shows how they appeared when they were found; some stand, some are buried to their shoulders in dirt, while others lie on their backs. Some have fallen and are cracked, as are many of the clay horses. The site has about as many visitors as the Great Wall and the Forbidden City. Recent digs have revealed that in addition to the clay soldiers, probably a depiction of the people and army men that surrounded him during his lifetime, is also a realistic waterfowl, made from bronze. Also created were many terra cotta musicians. The emperor's clay people include terra cotta officials and even acrobats, smaller than the soldiers but created with the same methods. "We find the underground pits are an imitation of the real organizations in the Qin dynasty," says the head of the excavation team at the Shaanxi Provincial Research Institute for Archaeology. "People thought when the emperor died, he took just a lot of pottery army soldiers with him. Now they realize he took a whole political system with him." Qin Shi Huangdi decreed a mass-production approach; artisans made figures almost as fast as toys are made nowadays. Clay can have cheap fabrication. Workers built bodies, then customized them with heads, hats, shoes, mustaches, ears and so on, made out of molds. Some of the figures appear so individual they seem modeled after real people, though that is unlikely. Yangtze River The Yangtze River is the longest river in China, and the third longest in the world. It flows for 3,988 miles. It is also one of the biggest rivers by volume in the world. Traditional Chinese music goes back 7,000 - 8,000 years with the discovery of a bone flute. In the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, only the royal families and officials were allowed to enjoy music, which was primarily chimes and bells. During the Tang Dynasty, dancing and singing came to the rest of China. With foreign religions such as Buddhism and Islam comming in to practice in China, exotic and religious songs were melted into into Chinese music. Next to the Yangtze river, farmers grew rice. They also ate a good deal of fish together with vegetables, especially water plants like water chestnuts and lotus. They also eat animals like dogs, pigs, and cattle. Because of the big use of human labor in parts of the south, those parts could grow almost twice as much food in the north. Women and girls in ancient China thought that they needed extremely small feet to be beautiful, only about three inches long and two inches wide. They decided to wrap their feet with incredibly tight bandages to get these tiny feet; five or six years old little girls were the ones who were unfortunate enough to have to go through his procedure.Full transcript
The bandages were so tight, in fact, they broke the girls’ toes and bent them underneath their feet and completely contorted them. They also bent the entire foot in half from toe to heel as well as folding it hot-dog style; then they had to walk on them like that. The girls spent a lot of their time crying for two or three years before their feet stopped hurting so much. Women with bound feet could’t walk very well so when they had to work in the fields they would be forced to crawl. Some of the earliest versions of Cinderella come from Sung Dynasty, China. In these renditions, the moral of the story is that the Prince loved Cinderella because she has the smallest feet of any girl in the kingdom, so the slipper will only fit her. Agriculture language List of Holidays Death Rituals Mandarin was the most predominant language over most of the country. At different times, The Chinese spoke other various dialects though. Before the time of the Three Kingdoms they were speaking a language called Hokkien. Hakka was spoken mostly by the Xiong Nu, Chinese from the north coastal part that were later brought in during the southern moving from the northern plain. Mandarin was the result of Mongolians speaking the Chinese language at the time after the fall of Tang Dynasty and eventually it was made better during Ming and Qing Dynasties. The makeup of the peoples republic of China is a socialist nation, under the dictatorship of the working class. The Public Peoples Congress (NPC) is their legislature. Below the 1982 constitution, a president serves as head of state and is elected by the NPC for five-year terms. Ancient artifacts that have been found in Ancient China that indicate people in China 4,000 to 10,000 years ago already knew how to do physical exercises to keep themselves healthy. Some of these activities included shejian (archery) and juding (lifting metal weights) all of these were carried out as far back as the Western Zhou Dynasty and many can be compared to sports today. In an ancient Chinese legend, there is a story about Shen Nong Shi (who was an emperor of China) that has to do with the coming of agriculture to China. Before Shen Nong Shi, people would eat reptiles, small animals, mussels, and wild vegetables. When the population gradually got larger, food became less and less nourishing; this created a desperate need to explore different kinds of food. Shen Nong Shi tried all kinds of herbs, and even poisons, to figure out the grains that could be eaten by people. Later, he also studied the climate and invented some farm tools. Map of Ancient
China: Funerary customs are different in each time period and place. There are even different customs in different regions in China. For the most common type of funeral, the family members of the dead wore what were called Mourning Dresses, which were made with up to five different fabrics according to how closely related the wearer is with the deceased. This is called "five-rank Sable". A funeral hall would be arranged in the family's house, with scrolls and poems hung on the walls. After that relatives, friends and neighbors may offer words about the dead in front of the coffin. Usually the ceremony will last for over seven days! 1.New Year's Day- Jan. 1
The larges celebration in China.
The Christmas of ancient China, lasting for two weeks!
3.Women's Day-Mar. 8
A holiday celebrating women gaining peace in China
4.Arbor Day-Mar. 12
The same as the one celebrated in the U.S.A.
5.Qingming Festival-Apr. 5
This holiday signifies the days getting brighter and warmer.
6. May Day- May 1
The same as the one in the U.S.A.
7. Youth Day- May 4
A day that celebrates children, but don't try to pull the "I can't clean my room because it's childrens day!" because it's only for kids 14 and older. For most of the last 20 centuries, China has had the largest economy in the world. Before then, the economy of ancient China showed the world and everyone there many new and interesting economic concepts, such as the use of coins and even paper money. But at that time, money distribution was all but fair, as well as land distribution! Only the high-class aristocrats and merchants could afford to be rich. The only major aspects in art that were changed in Ancient China was jade carving metal working in sculpture and ink and brushes being updated. Most children in ancient China never got even a chance at going to school. They had to work hard in the fields or taking care of their younger brothers or sisters. But if you were a boy, (girls didn't get to go to school until about 500 A.D.) and your father could afford to take you away from the fields, only then could he send you to school. If there wasn't a school in your village, you would have to go live with strangers in a larger town. Usually schools were free because they were paid for by the Emperor.
The boys worked extremely hard in school because they got special tests that, if they did well on them, the could get a great job in the government. Boys usually started school when they were six. You went to school every day, with no weekends, from about 6:00A.M. to 4:00 P.M. (B.C. only) Photo Gallery Zeke's grandparents just got back from china. Here are some pictures. Pop Quiz! Chloe is currently passing out your
answer sheets. They look like this: Name 1
10 please write your name at the top and your answer beside the corresponding number. All the info you need was in the prezi! Zeke A