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Aristotle & Burke

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Emily Stones

on 29 January 2016

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Transcript of Aristotle & Burke

Mostly unchallenged through the 1960s.
Taught people to speak well.
Concerned with "effect."
NEO-ARISTOTELIAN CRITICISM

How do you gauge effect?
(Thonssen & Baird)
Problems with Neo-Aristotelian Criticism:

2. Apply Aristotle's Cannons:

Invention -- creation of ideas for the speech.
(logos, pathos, ethos)
Organization -- structure of speech
Style -- language
Memory -- "mastery" of speech
Delivery -- vocal and physical delivery
KENNETH BURKE & CLUSTER CRITICISM
"The use of words by human(s) to form attitudes or induce actions in other human(s)"

Cluster Criticism

1) Identify key terms in the artifact (5-6)
2) Chart the terms that cluster around the key terms
(proximity, connective terms, cause-effect)
3) Discover an explanation for the artifact
(an agon analysis)
FANTASY-THEME CRITICISM

Fantasy: "the creative and imaginative interpretation of events"

Convergence
Sybmolic cues
Fantasy theme
Dramatic situation
Fantasy type
Rhetorical vision
Code the artifact -- identify setting, characters, and actions
Identify patterns and then construct the rhetorical vision(s)
GENERIC CRITICISM
A common situation results in common audience response.

IDEOLOGICAL CRITICISM
METAPHOR CRITICISM
Tenor <---------> Vehicle

Code the artifact -- identify setting, characters, and actions
Identify patterns and then construct the rhetorical vision(s)
Classical Rhetoric:
1. Deliberative or political
(language intended to incite & encourage)
Do we only speak in genres? (Bakhtin)

Ways to use generic criticism...
1. Identify a genre
2. Place a text within a genre.
3. Compare a text to the "standards"
of an existing genre.
NARRATIVE CRITICISM
A narrative is...

TYPES OF IDEOLOGICAL CRITIQUE

Institutional Power -- how institutions propagate ideology


Race-Class-Gender-Ability Studies -- how the social structure and relations also gives shape to personal identity and self-concept.
"The story of the Stetson is about one of Colorado's earliest entrepreneurs. That same spirit is with us today. Indeed, in some way everyone in this room is an entrepreneur" (Hickenlooper, Denver Post 1/12/12)
To be in a relationship is to be in a story.
How do media narratives influence the way we interpret events?
1) long term consequences of articulated
ideas
2) impact of work on speakers reputation
3) impact of work on later works
4) artistic quality of the work
5) long-term effects on a group
6) short-term effects on a group
1) Constructs "potential" effectiveness,
not actual
3) No moral judgments allowed
4) Suggested timelessness to qualities
5) Too rational, no room for creativity & aesthetics
6) Speeches are a-priori, circular reasoning
2) Speaking well doesn't mean well-
received.
1. Context: speaker, occasion, motivation
3. Effect
symbolic action: complex, meaningful
division, dissociation, alienation:
communication to bridge divide
identification & consubstantiation:
being part of others' lives. Where persuasion happens.
equipment for living:
a map for how to live
terministic screens:
language choices will show our reflection on, selection of, and deflection of reality (speaker's worldview)
Apologia
http://www.eonline.com/news/167785/the-top-9-celebrity-apologies
Situational, Substantive, Stylistic

Organizing Principle: internal dynamic

2. Forensic or legal
(to achieve justice through accusation and defense)
3. Epideictic or ceremonial (honor through praise and blame)
What values and beliefs give structure to a generic form? How does power influence the creation
of genre and its interpretation? (Critical/Cultural Scholars)
Evaluative beliefs: there ARE alternatives
Is this political power, social/cultural power, or relational power (or a combo of the three)?
How is ideology renewed, reinforced, and defended through rhetoric?
Does your critique liberate (e.g. remove the false consciousness) or empower (e.g. reframe and redefine so that one is not judged through an ideological lens)?
False consciousness (Marx)
Hegemony: how dominant ideology keeps its place
Biographies -- the life experiences of people create an ideology that effects how they (inter)act with present-day issues (e.g., decision-making in the military)
Structuration -- producing and reproducing patterns of interaction.
Commodification -- the status and value attached to objects that far surpasses its use-value.

Metaphors emphasize and isolate certain characteristics of the tenor.

Show attitude & perspective
Reveal basic assumptions
Effects on a physical level
a

...comprised of at least two events that are either active (an action) or
stative (a state or condition)
...presents a sequence of events
...shows a causal/contributing relationship
...discusses a unified subject
Argument as War
Time is Money
Institutional Metaphor: Disney as Family
MDA Taylor Parsons vs. Justin Moy
Full transcript