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Musical Eras

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jay wheeler

on 16 May 2014

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Transcript of Musical Eras

Musical Eras
Midieval Pre-1450
Music developed during the Gothic or Medieval period, including Gregorian Chant, was developed and refined over several centuries. This era covers the period 1000-1450. Music of the Medieval period is, for the most part, sacred, and characterized by the slow development of more rhythmic independence between voices in polyphonic textures. This arose from the monophonic style of Gregorian Chant and the more straight-forward multiple voice textures of organum.
Renaissance (1450 - 1600)
As all forms of art, including music, the renaissance marked the rebirth of humanism, and a revival in cultural achievements for their own sake. Musical innovations were quickly disseminated, primarily facilitated by the advent of music printing, and thus the development of music theory and practice was likewise propelled forward. This period covers the last half of the 15th century, and 16th century, inclusive. With the Renaissance, more complicated and broader harmonic and contrapuntal structures emerge. Though the musical forms employed are still largely liturgical, the late Renaissance does see a great increase in sophistication for instrumental composition, as well as the emergence of secular madrigals, dramatic works and the first operas.
Baroque Era (1600 - 1750)
(1750 - 1820)
In the music of this period there was again what amounts to a revolution against the musical trends of the preceding (or Baroque) era. To be sure, there is not a set date on which one might remark that here the revolution began. But one can see its beginnings in the music of the great transitional composer Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, the emergence of the Galant style, as well as in the products of the musicians who came to be known as the Mannheim School (Johann Stamitz, etc.).
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(1820 - 1910)
Extending the bounds of music beyond the restrictive formality of Classicism was the prime function of the musical period known as Romanticism. Formal concern, intellectuality and concise expression have now been augmented by sentiment, imagination and effect.

The period of Romanticism, heralded in the late works (ex., string quartets, symphonies, piano sonatas) of Ludwig van Beethoven and culminates in "Impressionism" (Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, etc.), a transitional trend which, with the innovations of the symphonies of Gustav Mahler, forms the beginnings of music in the 20th century.

The 20th Century- Modern
1900- Present

In this category, little attempt has been made to differentiate among the various sub-groupings under which music of our century has been placed. There is left no compact definition of the contents of this list except to state that it is music written during the 20th century which does not fit into the category of Romanticism purely for chronological reasons, but which, via either orchestral technique or mode of expression, is attempting to further broaden the horizons of music, though not to such an extent that it belongs to the modern era.

This category still includes a wide range of styles such as Neo-Classic, Neo-Romantic, Expressionist and Atonal.
Naming the Eras
There has been much interest in historic periods and labels as they apply to music – Baroque, Renaissance, etc. – therefore, for convenience, composers listed herein are identified with their period. The terms used for the various historic periods are borrowed from art history, and often follow similar developmental trends in painting, sculpture, literature, and architecture.
Gregorian Chant
Because ancient composers often did not affix their names to their compositions, many of the composers of this era are unknown to us, and, even if a name can be associate with a particular work, very little may be known about the specifics of that composer's life. However, a few major composers from this era are known to us, including Abbess Hildegard von Bingen, Perotin Magnus, and Guillaume de Machaut, among others.
Abbess Hildegard von Bingen
(1098 - 1179)
O pastor animarum (plainchant)
Organum[1] (/ˈɔrɡənəm/) is, in general, a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony, developed in the Middle Ages. Depending on the mode and form of the chant, a supporting bass line (or bourdon) may be sung on the same text, the melody may be followed in parallel motion (parallel organum), or a combination of both of these techniques may be employed.
Many of these changes were pioneered with the music of Franco-Flemish composers including Johannes Ockeghem
(c.1410 - 1497)
The period culminated in the music of Giovanni Palestrina, Claudio Monteverdi, William Byrd, Roland de Lassus
Melodies became more complex, often including early stringed instruments and toward the end of the era, the harpsichord.
Roland de Lassus
(1530 - 1594)
William Byrd
(1543 - 1623)
This was characterized by vastness of proportion, rich counterpoint, great splendor and a highly ornamented melodic line. There is a breaking away from the severity of Medieval and early Renaissance music with emphasis on the use of great vocal and instrumental color. Secular music is now as much in evidence as liturgical music.
"Ahh, Bach."
Radar O'Reily

Air from
Johann Sebastian Bach's 3rd Orchestral Suites
George Frideric Handel
(1685 - 1759)
Concerto Grosso Op. 6. No. 11
Choir of King's College,
Cambridge live performance of
Handel's Messiah
Antonia Vivaldi
(1678 - 1741)


Itzhak Perlman Vivaldi The Four Seasons Spring
(1685 - 1750)
Briefly, the characteristics of classicism are a concern for musical form with a greater emphasis on clarity with more concise melodic expression and clarity of instrumental color. The compositions of Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, in particular, exemplify the concepts of Classicism. This era culminated in the early music of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Franz Joseph Haydn
(1732 - 1809)

Symphony no. 94 in G - Surprise
Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart
Symphony No.40
Pinnock · Berliner Philharmoniker
The Overture to
The Marriage of Figaro
Luciano Pavaroti Figaro
5th Symphony, 1st movement: Allegro Con Brío
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770 - 1827)
The composer is unknown. This fragment was from a twelfth century manuscript that originated in the basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, based on the liturgical practices of the Knights Templar.
Johannes Brahms
(1833 - 1897)
Claude Debussy
(1862 - 1918)
Clair de Lune
Sergei Vassilievich
(1873 - 1943)

Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini

Leonard Bernstein
(1918 - 1990)
Symphonic Dances from West Side Story
Aaron Copland
(1900 - 1990)
Fanfare for the Common Man
John Williams
Do you have to ask?
Thank you
for viewing this presentation on the eras of classical music.
The era of classical music are:
Medieval period (1000-1450)
The Renaissance (1450 - 1600)
Baroque Era (1600 - 1750)
Classicism (1750 - 1820)
Romanticism (1820 - 1910)
The 20th Century (1900 - 2000)

Information was found at www.classical.net
and on www.youtube.com
Full transcript