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Transcript of Tropical Rainforest
In Asia, they are located in Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Philipines as well as the eastern coast of Australia
Climate Many trees have buttress and stilt roots, which are special roots found in tropical trees that help provide extra support in the shallow, wet soil of the rainforests.
Plant life Animal Life Geology Soil in tropical rainforests is not very full of nutrients. This is because the soil is very old and is exposed to a lot of rain, which washes many of the nutrients out. The reason Rainforest plants are still able to survive and grow vigorously despite the lack of nutrients in the soil is because they are able store nutrients in themselves instead of getting them from the soil. They get their nutrients through taking leftover nutrients from plants that are already dead. Topsoil in the rainforest is only one to two inches deep. by Elizabeth Ebling and Alexandra Salmen Rainforest soil lacks phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, which all come from "rock" sources, but it is full of aluminum oxide and iron oxide, which gives the soil a reddish or yellowish coloring. "[Biomes - Living Worlds] :: Rainforest :: Soil." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113340/text/biomes/biomes.rainforest.soil.html>. "Rainforest Biomes." Blue Planet Biomes. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. <http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rainforest.htm>. "Rainforest Facts." Wealth of the Rainforest - Pharmacy to the World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. <http://www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm>. Wealth of the Rainforest - Pharmacy to the World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. <http://www.rain-tree.com/>. websites: Tropical rainforests are found in three major geographical areas in the world. The Amazonian region In Central and south America is the biggest rainforest area and makes up over half of the world's total rainforests in Africa, rainforest is found in Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), Central African Republic, Madagaskar, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The Congo (or Zaire) river basin makes up most of the African rainforest. Layers The temperature in a rainforest is rarely more than 93 °F (34 °C) or less than 68 °F (20 °C) In tropical rainforests, the total rainfall each year can be anywhere from 80 inches to more than 200 inches. Because of the continuous rain, the weather is humid almost all year round. The average humidity in a rainforest is between 77 and 88%. Rainfall and humidity: Temperature: Symbiotic Interactions video Wind: Because it is so heavily forested, there is virtually no wind in most of the layers.. Plants in the rainforest have many adaptions so that they can thrive in their climate, geology, and different layers. They can shed water off their leaves quickly so that the branches don't get weighed down and break. Many plants have grooved leaves and drip tips, and some have oily coatings on their leaves to easily shed water. Because of the lack of wind, animals play a very important role in the pollination of plants. The rainforest is divided into five layers: the emergent layer, canopy layer, understory layer, shrub layer, and ground layer. Each of these contain different plants and animals that adapt to life in the specific conditions of their layer. The understory layer receives very little sunlight. This means that the plants have to grow larger leaves to be able to obtain sufficient sunlight. Plants in this layer rarely grow over 12 feet. Some animals that live in this layer include jaguars, leopards, red-eyed tree frogs, and lots of insects. The ground layer and shrub layer combine to make up the forest floor. Because it is so dark in this layer, not many plants grow there. The plants that do grow there decay very quickly because of the lack of sunlight. One animal that lives in this layer is the giant anteater. The emergent layer contains very tall trees reaching heights anywhere from 45 metersto 80 meters on some occasions. They have to be able to stand hot temperatures and strong wind. Animals such as Eagles, bats, butterflies, and some monkeys live in this layer. the canopy layer is the primary layer for rainforests and provides a roof for the lower layers. It is filled with branches and leaves that are typically smooth and oval that come to a point. There is a very high abundance of food in this layer for animals such as tree frogs, toucans, and snakes. .Most leaves in the dark understory are very large so they can absorb as much sunlight as possible. Some trees also have leaf stalks that turn with the movement of the sun so they can absorb the maximum amount of sunlight. Leaves in the upper canopy are dark green, small and leathery to reduce water loss in the intense sunlight. Other plants also grow on larger trees in the upper levels to get sunlight. These are the epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads. The Kapok tree is a majestic emergent tree that can grow to a height of over 150 feet. It is home to many plants and animals. It is drought deciduous, which means that they lose many or all of their leaves during tropical dry seasons. The trunks are sometimes hollowed out to make canoes, and the fluffy, white seed coverings can be used to make pillows and mattresses. Fig trees are a very important part of the rainforest ecosystem. There are around 1,000 different species around the world. They are so important because up to 70% of animals in the rainforest depend on figs in their diet. The different species of figs produce fruit during different times, which means that there are always figs available for herbivores and omnivores to eat. Jambu is a small tree or large shrub that produces small, sweet, juicy fruit that are a big part of rainforest animals' diets and is mostly in southeast Asia. curare is a large vine that grows in the canopy of South American rainforests. Sometimes it is crushed and mixed with other plants and venomous animals to produce a syrup-like substance that is used in smalls amounts for medicine, but it can create paralysis in muscles and is deadly in large amounts. The terrain is very densely forested and fairly flat. Chimpanzees grow to be about 3-5 feet tall and weigh between 99 and 175 pounds. They eat many different kinds of foods, but their favorites are fruits and young leaves. They live in groups or communities that contain anywhere from 15- 100 members. They have several behavioral adaptions to their surroundings such as building nests up in trees where males will hunt at night for bush pigs and baby monkeys . They have also been seen using twigs to pull out termites from their termite nests so they can eat them.
The king cobra can be found in the Southeast Asian rainforests. It lives in clearings, edges of the forest, and near rivers and swamps. It can grow up to 18 feet long, weigh up to 20 pounds, and have fangs as long as 1/2 inch. The venom of this animal is a physical adaptation that paralyzes its prey's nervous system. It is carnivorous and mainly eats other snakes, including venomous ones. The vampire bat is found mostly in tropical areas such as the rainforests in Central and Sounth America. It is about 3 inches long with a 8 inch wingspan and only weighs around 1 ounce. A physical adaption is that it can walk, run, and hop along the ground to follow its prey due to its strong legs, which no other bat can do. It drinks the blood of mammals and birds, and if it doesn't eat for more than a couple days, it will die. The Toco Toucan is the biggest of the toucans. It can grow to be around 2 feet long, and Its large, colorful bill can get to be about 8 inches long. They usually live in pairs or in flocks. They live in nests that are in holes in trees. It has important physical adaptations such as its long, feather-like tongue that helps it move food along its bill. It also has strong toes so that it can grip and stay on branches and a wide tail to help with balance. It eats many different things such as fruit, spiders, insects, seeds, eggs, lizards and snakes. The bengal tiger lives mostly in Asian rainforests. An average adult male is about 9 feet in total length and weighs around 420 pounds, and females are a bit smaller. One physical adaptation for the bengal tiger is that it is so strong that it can drag its prey almost a half a mile even if the animal is bigger or heavier than itself. It is usually solitary and will occupy 200 square miles of territory, and will be very protective of it. This is a behavioral adaptation. Each species of fig has a unique symbiotic relationship with its own pollinator wasp. These tiny wasps are only about 2 millimeters long. They enter through an opening in the bottom of the fruit to pollinate. Without these wasps there would be no seeds to produce more figs, which is a very important food source for many animals. The cocoa tree is found in the Amazon river basin. It is an understory tree and grows to be about 50 feet tall. They need the constant heat and rain of the rainforest in order to survive. Cocoa beans are used in chocolate, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and cocoa powder and much more "Bengal Tigers at Animal Corner." Animals, Farm Animals, Wildlife Animals, Pets at Animal Corner. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.animalcorner.co.uk/rainforests/bengaltiger_about.html>. "Bengal Tigers at Animal Corner." Animals, Farm Animals, Wildlife Animals, Pets at Animal Corner. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.animalcorner.co.uk/rainforests/bengaltiger_about.html>.
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