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International Relations - 1918-1939

Why did international peace fail by 1939?

phil roberts

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of International Relations - 1918-1939

Mr Roberts International relations 1918-1939 Key Question 1: Were the Peace Treaties of 1919–1923 fair?

Focus Points
• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What were the immediate reactions to the peace settlement?
• Could the treaties be justified at the time? Key Question 2: To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
Focus Points

• What were the aims of the League?
• How successful was the League in the 1920s?
• How far did weaknesses in the League’s organization make failure
• How far did the Depression make the work of the League more
• Why did the League fail over Manchuria and Abyssinia? Key Question 3: Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?

Focus Points •
What were the long-term consequences of the Peace Treaties of 1919–1923?

• What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?

• How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?

• Was the policy of appeasement justified?

• How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?

• Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939? Starter Activity:

Who are the following people and places and WHY are they important? Lesson 1
Lesson Objective:

To assess the mood in 1919. Outcomes:
Good - Pupils can describe the 'mood' in 1919.
Even better if - You can provide explanations why this was the case.
Exceptional when - You can evaluate the long term impact. Outcomes:

Good - pupils can describe the 'mood' in Europe in 1919.
Even better if - Pupils can provide explanations as to why this was the case.
Exceptional when - pupils can evaluate how the mood affected political debate. Key Question 1: Were the Peace Treaties of 1919–1923 fair?

Focus Points
• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What were the immediate reactions to the peace settlement?
• Could the treaties be justified at the time? Activity 1
Summarize this information in shortened form.

The Paris peace conference
The conference took place in the palace of Versailles - it lasted for 12 months
32 nations were invited - No one from the defeated nations were present.
5 treaties were drawn up at the conference - The main one dealt with Germany (Versailles) the others dealt with her Allies.
All important decisions were taken by the 'Big three' (Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George)
The big three were supported by many diplomats but very often ignored their advice.
The big three got off to a bad start and relations got worse as things went on - especially between France and the USA.
Wilson was very ill during the conference. As a result... Activity 2:

Based on activity 1 - What statements were likely to apply to what countries?

They are scattered around the room. France Britain USA Activity 4: What is the message of this source? PEEE paragraph Please! Activity 3:

"To the Allied powers the treaty of Brest -Litovsk was
almost significant as the Russians and Germans who signed it. The naked and brutal truth annexation (Take over of land and 25% of its population) as practiced by a victorious Germany weakened the arguments of a well-meaning but misguided pacifists in the countries of the Entante".

Purnell; A History of the War (1969)

1: What clues are there in the above text about Germany's ambitions with Russia? Plenary - Can we?

Good - pupils can describe the 'mood' in Europe in 1919.

Even better if - Pupils can provide explanations as to why this was the case.

Exceptional when - pupils can evaluate how the mood affected political debate. World War 1 Treaty Of Versailles Hitler League of Nations:
Success and failure Mussolini Lesson 2 Starter Game: What can we remember? You have a grid with 9 questions on it related from last lessons learning.

You cannot answer your own questions
You have to get the initials of the person who has answered the question.
Sir can answer questions
No cheating!
**Achievement point for the 1st person to complete the grid!
Lessons 2 and 3
To analyze and debate the aims of the Big three. Lesson 2 Outcomes:

Good - Pupils are able to identify the Aims of the big three.

Even better if - Pupils are able to explain the different points of view in context.

Exceptional when - Pupils are able to evaluate if the peace talks were doomed to failure. Activity 1:

If you were an diplomat - Which one of these would you advise is the most important?
Punish Germany!
Cripple Germany - No more Wars!
Reward the victors!
Establish lasting peace! Activity 2 (10 Mins)

You are either France, Britain or the USA.
You have to summarize the Aims of your country using pages 4 and 5 in Ben Walsh

Use the fact file for each leader to understand the background of each character
France (Clemenceau) Paragraph 2 (Page 4)
USA (Wilson) Paragraph 3 (Page 4)
Britain (DLG) Paragraph 2 (Page 5)

Have to include:
Feelings / Aims / Actions / Pressure from? Activity 3: Peer Teaching (10 Mins)

You have to move around the room and visit people who are the other 2 countries to complete your 3 profiles.

These have to be completed and detailed! Activity 4: Debate time.

You will see Statements and all 3 countries have to contribute to what should be done.

Do you agree or disagree?
Be ready to justify your thinking!!

Think of arguments for and against, and how you can discredit arguments! Germany should not be treated too harshly Germany should have its overseas colonies taken from it Germany should be allowed to have a strong army and navy We should try to build a better world out of the ruins of WW1 We need Germany to remain strong as a European trading partner Germany should be crippled so it cannot wreak havoc on Europe again! People should have self determination
(The Ability to rule themselves) Plenary
Whats the real problem with getting everyone to agree on what to do?

Why? Germany should be made to pay for the war! What is the message of the cartoon? Key Skills

Note making
Finding information
Sourcework Key Skills

Summarizing information
Evaluation What is the message of the cartoon? Lesson 4: Source work and peer assessment Lesson Outcomes:
Good - Pupils can produce an answer for a source question.
Even better if - Pupils are able to peer assess each others work.
Exceptional when pupils are able to evaluate their peer assessment. Plenary

EBI Starter:

Write 5 words (Back of books) to do with what we have been studying in the last 3 lessons - Some one else will then put that word in a sentence. To assess the treaty of Versailles Good if: You can identify the terms of the TOV.
EBI: You can explain the detail of this.
Exceptional when you can evaluate the impact. How?
Video Analysis
Mind Map LO: Assessing the Treaty of Versailles Activity 1: Terms of the treaty (15 Mins) 1: Cut and stick the terms of the treaty on to a double page in your books as a mind map.

2: Using traffic light colors represent what areas of the treaty the Germans would hate the most Activity 2: Evaluation time (15 Mins) What part of the treaty of Versailles did Germany hate the most?

In your answer make reference to

What was the biggest issue and why?
Was one reason more important than the others?

EXPLAIN AND EVALUATE Activity 2: Map time (5 Mins) Use the map to color the areas affected by the treaty

Annotate the map

Use Ben Walsh page 9 Starter Activity: Plenary: LAMB

BLAME Lesson Objective:
Could the treaty of Versailles be justified? Outcomes:

Good - pupils can identify different interpretations of the TOV
EBI - Pupils can explain why different come about.
Exceptional when pupils are able to formulate their own opinion about the treaty of Versailles. How?

Source work and groupwork Starter activity.

What is hindsight?
Activity 1

Complete the worksheet on the impact of the Treaty on Germany On to activity 1 Activity 2: Group work

Using pages 14-15 - Put the sources under the following four headings

Best that could be achieved at the time

They did what the people wanted

A death warrant for Europe

Betrayal For Example:

Source 23 - Death warrant for Europe

This shows that a leading British diplomat agreed that by agreeing to the treaty there would later be problems for Europe. Plenary

Critical Activity 3: Exit pass

How far do you agree with this statement?

'The views of the treaty with hindsight are generally kinder than the views expressed at the time'

Write a paragraph evaluating this viewpoint. Lesson Objective

To assess how fair the other treaties of 1919-23 were. Outcomes...
Good - if pupils can identify the terms of each treaty.
EBI - if pupils can explain why they are fair or unfair.
Exceptional when - Pupils can assess the 'fairness'. Activity 1

Summarize the main features of the treaties

Ie: Who it dealt with
Land Lost / Gained
Any other info Lesson Objective
To assess the the Aims of the LON Outcomes:

Good - Pupils are able to identify the Aims of the LON .

EBI - explain the strengths and weaknesses of the LON.

Exceptional when - Evaluate any short and long term factors this could create. Jot down the Aims of the league using Ben Walsh Page 24 Activity 1: Using Sources 16 and 17

Complete the Green Question box
on page 25 Starter: What does this tell us about the LON? The Aims of the League of Nations
The aims were set out in a covenant or constitution, basically a written rulebook. The aims were:
To be united and strong enough to discourage any nation from using force as a way to solve disputes

To provide a place to discuss international disputes and work them out peacefully

To encourage countries to cooperate, especially in business and trade

To encourage disarmament by nations

To improve living and working conditions for people around the world
By sticking together, the nations of the world would have protection and help from each other – this was called collective security.
Complete the comic strip on the following page; draw out the 5 aims of the League of Nations. Lesson Objective:

To assess the implications of America not joining the LON. Lesson Outcome:

Good - Pupils will be able to identify why America did not join the LON

EBI - Pupils are able to explain the impact this had.

Exceptional when - Pupils can evaluate the long term impact of this. Starter:

Can all wars be stopped?

Think pair square share The LON was supposed to enforce the Treaty of Versailles. Many German Americans and Americans with German ancestors were opposed to the huge war reps that Germany had to pay!
If the LON had the power to stop trading with countries that were not complying or being peaceful then the US might lose money and business if trade is stopped.
Americans thought that the LON would mean sending US soldiers to every dispute that occurred. After all the deaths in WW1 nobody wanted this again. Some people feared that the LON would be dominated by Britain and France and that the US would be used to defend their empires. Many Americans were anti-empire. The Senate (US parliament) rejected the LON – in the USA the LON was not very popular. Here are some of the reasons why…
In 1920 Wilson became seriously ill after a stroke. He still pressed for the US to join the LON. He went back to congress in March 1920, the senate defeated the Treaty 49:35 votes. Activity 1
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