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Thinking About "Text"

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by

Paul Carter

on 30 September 2016

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Transcript of Thinking About "Text"

Thinking About "Text":
The genre, features, and structure of different kinds of writing

Genre
A CATEGORY USED TO CLASSIFY SPECIFIC TYPES OF MEDIA
BASED ON SHARED CHARACTERISTICS
Literary Genre
A CATEGORY USED TO CLASSIFY LITERARY TEXTS BASED ON SHARED CHARACTERISTICS
FICTION
MADE-UP STORIES THAT DEPICT INVENTED CHARACTERS AND EVENTS
THE WORLD OF FICTION
Fictional stories, whether recorded or passed down by word of mouth, involve a departure from the real world, creating an infinite number of possible alternatives!
FOLKLORE
LEGEND
TALL TALE
MYSTERY
GENRE FICTION
STORIES THAT BEGAN AS PART OF A CULTURAL TRADITION AND WERE PASSED DOWN BY WORD OF MOUTH
MYTHS
SCIENCE FICTION
FANTASY
HISTORICAL FICTION
REALISTIC FICTION
FABLE
FAIRY TALE
NON-FICTION
WRITTEN WORKS BASED ON THE REAL WORLD THAT DEPICT ACTUAL EVENTS, FACTS, OR INFORMATION
THE REAL WORLD
AUTOBIOGRAPHY
THE TRUE STORY OF A PERSON'S LIFE WRITTEN BY THE PERSON THE STORY IS ABOUT
MEMOIR
A TRUE STORY ABOUT SPECIFIC MOMENTS OR PERIODS IN A PERSON'S LIFE WRITTEN BY THE PERSON THE STORY IS ABOUT
BIOGRAPHY
THE TRUE STORY OF A PERSON'S LIFE WRITTEN BY SOMEONE ELSE
EXPOSITORY
WRITING THAT ANALYZES A TOPIC BY PROVIDING RELEVANT EVIDENCE AND DETAILS
DESCRIPTIVE
WRITING THAT DESCRIBES A TOPIC IN GREAT DETAIL
Newspaper
Article
Academic Article/Report
Textbook/Encyclopedia
Instructions/Directions
Magazine Article
Letters to the Editor
Advertising
Some critical reviews
Editorials
Letters of recommendation
Diary
Personal Letters
Brochure
Essays
Special interest journalism
Text Features
Common elements that can be found in similar types of writing, which help a reader navigate and understand a text
Stories that rely on INVENTED
descriptions and events; made-up stories

Common Genre
Folklore
Stories that began as part of a cultural tradition that have been passed down through the generations usually by word of mouth
Stories where the characters and events follow certain patterns based on the world of the story
Narrative Non-fiction
Writing that uses the elements of a story to convey real facts about about a connected sequence of events
Autobiography
The true story of a person's life that is written by the person who is the subject of the story
Memoir
A type of narrative non-fiction in which the author tells the true story of specific moments or events in his or her own life.
Biography
The true story of a person's life that is written by someone other than the person who is the subject of the story
Fiction
2 Types of Text Features:
1. Narrative Text Features (Elements of Narrative)
2. Informational Text Features
Types of Narrative Texts!
7 Narrative Text Features
(Elements of Narrative)
Theme
Point of View
Setting
The time, place, and mood of a
story.

Provides context about the story by revealing where and when, and under what circumstances the story takes place
Characters
The people, animals, or creatures in a story
Plot
the sequence of events in a story
Conflict
the main struggle or source of tension facing a character in a story
Mood
The dominant feeling or emotion experienced BY THE READER while reading
Expose a character's mental state
Establishes/Influences the mood
Can show the reader a different way of life
Makes the action more or less believable
Represent an idea or concept
How does the SETTING affect the reader's understanding of the story?
SCENERY/LOCATION
TRANSPORTATION
CLOTHING
WEATHER/SEASON
CHARACTERS
1st Person
2nd Person

Objective

Limited

Omniscient
Grammatical Person
You
He, She, They
He, She, They
He, She, They
I, We, Me, Us
YES
YES (reader = narrator)
NO
Narrative Agency
Level of Insight
YES -
the narrator's own thoughts and feelings
NO (directions)
3rd Person
NO
NO
YES (one character)
NO
YES (all-knowing)
Determines the pace of a story
Provides the reader with information about events in a story
Shows the reader how characters feel
How does the POINT OF VIEW affect the reader's understanding of the story?
vs.
vs.
I feel...
Creates a certain atmosphere or experience for the reader
Influences the reader's expectations about the story
Helps the reader understand the SETTING
Affects how the reader connects to the story
How does the MOOD affect the reader's understanding of the story?
Types of Informational Texts!
Expository
Writing that explains, informs, or analyzes an idea or topic by providing relevant evidence and details
Argumentative
Writing that attempts to persuade the reader to agree with the author's position about a topic through sound reasoning and evidence
Descriptive
Writing that seeks to re-create or present a person or topic in great detail
Informational Non-fiction
Writing that presents real facts about a topic in order to explain, describe, or argue about an idea
Newspaper
Article
Academic Article/Report
Textbook/Encyclopedia
Instructions/Directions
Magazine Article
Letters to the Editor
Advertising
Some critical reviews
Editorials
Letters of recommendation
Diary
Personal Letters
Brochure
Essays
Special interest journalism
4 Types of Informational Text Features
Print Features
Guide the reader through overall patterns of organization and help the reader locate information quickly
Organizational Features
Help the reader quickly identify the layout of information within the text
Graphic Features
Represent information in some type of a visual manner
Illustrations
A form of visually representing information by depicting the image as realistically as possible
Features
Table of Contents
Preface
Index
Glossary
Appendix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Identifies the key topics and where they are located; the overall organizational plan for the text
PREFACE
Provides an overview of the content; things you might want to know before you read
INDEX
A list of people and topics found in the text listed in alphabetical order with page numbers (located in the back of the text)
GLOSSARY
Defines key vocabulary words found in the text (in the text these words usually appear in bold, italics, or colored print)
Glossaries also organize terms in alphabetical order and are located in the back of the text
APPENDIX
Some informational texts include a special section that has more information or greater detail about a topic at the back
Titles
Headings
Special Text
Labels
Sidebars
TITLES
Identify the main topics or categories in the text
HEADINGS
Identify different sub-topics within a broader category; more detailed texts may include subheadings which identify even more narrow sections of text within a sub-topic
SIDEBARS
Boxed off sections of text (usually on the side) that contain additional information about something from the main text
LABELS
Identify the subject of images or graphic features; sometimes referred to as captions when describing a photograph or picture
SPECIAL PRINT
Many informational texts make use of special print (bold, italics, or color) to help the reader identify important words or key vocabulary found in the glossary
DIAGRAMS
MAPS
TABLES/CHARTS
GRAPHS
TIME LINES
TABLES/CHARTS
Organize large amounts of information in a small space or by category
GRAPHS
Depict the relationship between different pieces of information
MAPS
Show the location of places relevant to the information in the text, or represent important information geographically
TIME LINES
Visually represent a sequence of events
DIAGRAMS
Drawings that show or explain information from the text
MAGNIFICATIONS
PHOTOS
DRAWINGS
IMAGES
IMAGES
Pictures that show exactly what something looks like (typically a non-personal subject)
DRAWINGS
Are used to show the reader what something could have or might have looked like
PHOTOS
Pictures that show exactly what something looks like (typically what a person/people look like at a specific moment in time)
MAGNIFICATIONS
Images that have been blown up in size to show what something very small looks like in greater detail
How do the CHARACTERS affect the reader's understanding of a story?
Offer the reader multiple perspectives
Show the reader different ways of handling a situation
Might reflect the author's attitude towards something
Relate to the reader's emotions/experiences
Draw the reader into the story
Characterization
The process by which a writer reveals things about a character
Indirect Characterization
When the author reveals or shows the reader something about a character through the character's behavior
External Characterization
When the author reveals something about a character through other characters
Direct Characterization
Information about a character that is explicitly stated by the author/narrator; when the author/narrator specifically tells the reader something about a character
3 Main Types
1. Direct Characterization
2. Indirect Characterization
3. External Characterization
explicit
narration
adjectives
implicit
speech (dialogue)
actions
looks
explicit/implicit
narration/dialogue
thoughts
reactions
How does the CONFLICT affect the reader's understanding of a story?
Creates tension and interest
Moves the story forward
Represent big ideas beyond the world of the story
Affects characterization
Impacts the quality of the story
2 Main Types
External Conflict
a struggle that takes place against forces outside of a character
Person vs. Person
a struggle against another character usually a protagonist (good guy) vs. antagonist (bad guy)
Person vs. Nature
a struggle against a force of nature (natural disaster or habitat) usually for survival
Person vs. Society
a struggle against a rule, tradition, or pattern of the larger community within the story
Internal Conflict
Person vs. Self
a struggle that takes place against forces within a character
a struggle within a character's own mind that usually involves making a choice or confronting some kind of strong emotion
Should I tell someone at the party...

Should I talk about my depression...
Brian must learn to survive in the Canadian wilderness...
Will the factions survive...is it too dangerous to be different
Who will rule the galaxy...
Exposition
the part of the story that introduces the characters, setting, and/or the initial problem that sets the story in motion
Rising Action
the part of the story where characters encounter complications/problems which create tension and reveal the central conflict of the story
Climax
the high point (or turning point) in the action of the story
Falling Action
the part of the story that reveals the outcome of the central conflict and tensions begin to resolve or heighten before the moment of final resolution
Resolution
the conclusion of the story which tells the reader where the characters end up
Text Structures
the way a piece of writing is organized
THE REAL WORLD
The REAL WORLD is the actual world where we live and engage the people, places, events, and facts around us.
STORIES WITH FAIRIES OR OTHER MAGICAL CREATURES, USUALLY WRITTEN FOR CHILDREN
STORIES THAT TEACH A SIMPLE LESSON OR MORAL, USUALLY WITH ANIMALS AS CHARACTERS
STORIES THAT INVOLVE HUMOROUS AND EXAGGERATED CHARACTERS PERFORMING LARGER THAN LIFE FEATS
STORIES MEANT TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING ABOUT NATURE BASED ON THE ACTIONS OF GODS/GODDESSES, SOMETIMES CONSIDERED SACRED
STORIES BASED ON A REAL PERSON OR EVENT THAT HAVE BECOME SATURATED WITH IMAGINATIVE MATERIAL OVER TIME
STORIES THAT FOLLOW CERTAIN PATTERNS BASED ON THE SPECIFIC SETTINGS AND EVENTS THAT APPEAR IN THE WORLD OF THE STORY
STORIES SET IN THE PRESENT THAT COULD HAPPEN, BUT DEPICT MADE UP CHARACTERS AND EVENTS
STORIES SET IN A RECOGNIZABLE PERIOD IN HISTORY, BUT DEPICT MADE UP CHARACTERS AND EVENTS
STORIES SET IN THE PAST IN A WORLD WITH MAGIC, ADVENTURE, OR OTHER HIGHLY IMAGINATIVE ELEMENTS
STORIES SET IN THE FUTURE THAT USUALLY INCLUDE SOME KIND OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
ADVENTURE
STORIES THAT FOCUS ON SOLVING A CRIME OR UNCOVERING A SECRET
STORIES THAT FOCUS ON AN EXCITING UNDERTAKING AND USUALLY INVOLVE DANGER, PHYSICAL RISK, OR SURVIVAL
NARRATIVE NON-FICTION
WRITTEN WORKS THAT USE THE ELEMENTS OF STORY TO DEPICT REAL FACTS ABOUT A SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, USUALLY THE STORY OF SOMEONE'S LIFE
INFORMATIONAL
WRITING THAT IS MEANT TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING OR PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT A TOPIC
ARGUMENTATIVE
WRITING THAT ATTEMPTS TO PERSUADE THE READER TO AGREE WITH THE AUTHOR'S POINT OF VIEW THROUGH SOUND REASONING AND EVIDENCE
Perspective
a way of seeing something; a person's attitude about a topic or event
Point of View
the perspective of the person telling a story
Narrator
the person telling a story
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