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The Aztec and The Spanish

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Clare Talbot

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of The Aztec and The Spanish

How Did Geography and History Affect the Worldviews of the Aztec and the Spanish? How Did Geography Influence the Societies of the Aztec and the Spanish? How Did the History of the Aztec Contribute to their Worldview? How Did the History of Spain Contribute to It's Worldview? How Did Contact With Other Societies Influence the Worldview of the Aztec and the Spanish? What Elements of Worldview are Reflected in Creation Stories? How Did the Aztec Emperors Become the Most Powerful Rulers in the Valley of Mexico? How Did the Spanish Monarchy Become One of the Most Powerful Monarchies in Europe? Aztec:

- Aztec lived in Valley of Mexico
- Mountains protected and isolated the valley from the rest of Mexico
- Valley had lakes and rivers, good for transportation and for source of water
- Valley had small agricultural areas and ecological zones
- Aztec took advantage of the ecological zones and grew certain things in certain zones
- Aztec developed special farming techniques due to ecological zones
- Size of the valley caused all the civilizations living in it to come into contact with each other, and sometimes work together

Spanish:

- Spain had many different regions that were seperated by mountains and rivers
- Each region was like its own kingdom and each kingdom was different and had its own culture
- Different kingdom's cultures played a part in the unique culture that spain has today
- Some areas of spain were hot and dry, other were cooler
- There were different resources in different areas of Spain
- Spanish living in the coastal regions were good at boating and fishing, and knowleadgable about the ocean
- Spain's large mountain region, the Pyrenees, protected Spain from France, and blocked easy access to rest of Europe - Aztec originally lived in a city called Atzlan in desert-like region of northern Mexico
- Migrated south to find a new place to live
- Travelled for 200 years following the orders of their god Huitzilopochtli who would tell them where to settle down
- Came upon the valley of mexico which was already inhabited by other societies, the best lands already taken
- Found swampy island in middle of Lake Texoco
- Chose the island as their home because of the eagle sitting on a nopal cactus, eating a snake, a sign that had been foretold to them by Huitzilopochtli
- Aztec built city of Tenochtitlan on island in honour of Huitzilopochtli
- Aztec had trouble being respected by their neighbours, the societies of Chichimec, Culhuacan, and Tepanec
- Aztec had to learn to fend for themselves without the help of the neighbouring societies
- Aztec became strong and ferocious warriors
- Aztec invented ways to make life on island easier like aqueducts and causeways to connect Tenochtitlan to the mainland
- Aztec eventually forged alliances and confederations with their neighbours
- Over time Aztec absorbed manners and traditions of societies around them helping to create their unique indentity and culture Map of Mexico Map of Spain Huitzilopochtli City of Tenochtitlan - Romans colonized Spain in the 3rd and 5th century
- Romans brought with them their Catholic faith which became very important in Spain
- Muslims came to Spain
- All different faiths were allowed to be practised during the time of Muslim rule
- Christian kingdoms began to become powerful
- Christian kingdoms fought to take back the land under Muslim control
- Kingdoms of Aragon and Catalonia came together to fight Muslim rule
- Christian kingdoms captured all land under Muslim control until only Granada was left
- King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I eventually captured Granada
- Muslim rule in Spain ended
- During this time Spain was still made up of several seperate kingdoms
- King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married to unite their two kingdoms
- King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted everyone in Spain to have the same religion
- They felt one religion would unify Spain and allow them to establish control
- They reinstated the Spanish Inquisition
- Spanish Inquisition judged anyone who was believed not to follow Catholic faith
- If judged as a non-believer you could be put in the dungeons, tortured, or killed
- Muslims and Jews were no longer accepted because they did not practice the Catholic faith
- Eventually all Jews and Muslims, even those who had converted to Roman Catholic faith were expelled from Spain
- Spanish wanted to explore and find other lands because routes to East around Africa had already been taken
- Spanish wanted to expand their control
- Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic, discovered Carribean, and claimed it for Spain
- Resources from new lands discovered by Spain were considered property of Spain
- Missionaries were sent to the new lands to share Roman Catholic faith
- Spain believed that their country was superior to any other. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Catholic Faith Spanish:

- Moors brought the Islamic culture to Spain
- With the help of the Moors, Spain, especially Cordoba, was viewed as a centre of learning and the arts
- Spain was involved in the revival of the ancient study of Greek and Roman philosophy and culture due to Muslim scholars
- Muslims built important schools of astronomy, mathematics, and architecture in Spain
- Great librairies were established by the Muslims with texts, books, and manuscrips on subjects like zoology, physics, atrology, history, and botany.
- Muslims influenced Spanish architecture, learning, and design
- Spanish architecture and artwork used geometric shapes because humans and animals in art was prohibited by Islam
- Mulsims brought mozaics, magnificent palaces and mosques, and beautiful Muslim architecture to Spain

Aztec:

- Aztec were influenced by many Meso-Ameican societies who were already living in the Valley of Mexico when the Aztecs discovered it
- Meso-American societies like the Olmec, Toltec, and Teotihuacan, influenced the Aztecs on religion, architecture, and social systems
- Meso-American societies influenced the Aztec in religious practices, the importance of human sacrifice, and the way they viewed their gods
- Meso-American societies influenced the Aztec's social structures and government
- Meso-American societies influenced Aztec murals, scuptures, and monuments
- Meso-American societies influenced the Aztec way of life and the way they viewed the world and its people Spanish Architecture Aztec Art - Aztecs believed that the gods had created and destroyed the world four times
- They believed the four destructions were caused by the death of the sun
- They believed the fifth world was created by the gods at Teotihuacan
- The Aztec believed it was their duty to keep the sun alive to protect the Earth and its people from destruction
- They did this by performing human sacrifice
- Aztecs thought that human blood was the most precious gift you could give a god and that it was necessary to keep the sun alive
- Aztecs worked together to maintain balance of the universe
- Aztec creation stories tell that the two gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were responsible for seperating heaven and Earth
- Creation stories also say that gods sacrificed themselves to become the sun and the moon
- Aztecs believed that humans were created from the bones of their ancestors and the blood of the gods
- Creation stories shaped the Aztecs religious and spiritual beliefs and the way they viewed the world
- Creation stories shaped the Aztecs customs and traditions
- The Aztecs' creation stories help us to understand their reason for doing things and how they lived their lives
Human Sacrifice Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl - Aztec created alliances with other powerful rulers, often through arranged marriages
- Aztec married direct descnedants of the Toltec, because being a direct descnedant of a Toltec made you more powerful
- Aztec gained power and respect by forming a Triple Alliance with the city-states of Texcoc, Tlacopan, and Tenochtitlan
- Aztecs evetually became most powerful partner in Triple Alliance
- Triple Alliance controlled most of the region from the Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico
- Aztec developed a very effective military strategy
- Conquered weaker societies first and then conquered the stronger societies
- When Aztec defeated a city-state they attacked the cities' temples, and took hostages
- The people of the conquered cities had to worship Aztec gods along with their own
- If the city-states did not obey Aztec rules, the Aztec emperor sent imperial forces to brutally put down disobedience
- Aztec continued to build their power by taking over new territories and suppressing rebellions
- Aztec eventually overtook more than fifty city-states
- Most important individuals governing the Aztecs large empire were the nobility, or pipiltin
- Most important figure in pipiltin was the emperor
- The Chief of Internation Affairs, the priests, and the tlatoque and tecutin, came after the emperor The Triple Alliance Aztec Emperor - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella centralized government under their control
- Created more efficient government bureaucracy and imposed new taxes
- Took control of Roman Catholic Church in Spain
- Began the Spanish Inquistion and forbade any faith but Roman Catholicism
- King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella reduced powers of aristocracy
- Reorganized important financial and judicial institutions
- Monarchy gained support of aristocrats by granting them land and exempt them from paying taxes
- Gained support of merchants by promising protection and changing financial institutions to help them with their activities
- Monarchy put individuals of their own choosing into the Church so that they would have more control over the Church
- By controlling Church, gained control of Spain
- Monarchy supported Christopher Columbus in his explorations
- Became very wealthy and powerful due to exploration
- Controlled large areas of Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Carribean Queen Isabella, King Ferdinand, and Christopher Columbus King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella and Roman Catholic Church Geography affects a society or country's worldview in many ways. It would have affected the societies that the Aztec and the Spanish came
into contact with, which would have most likely been the ones living near them or even with them. It affects the resources that the Aztec and
Spanish would have had. Because both societies were living in different countries, they would have had access to different things, like land for
farming, or access to the oceans for exploring, or even certain types of fruit, or stone and marble for bulding temples, and churches, and houses.
It also would have affected the way that each different society lived their lives. For example, because the coast of Spain was right on the ocean,
the people living in that area would have probably been really good at fishing and boating, and would know a lot about the ocean. This probably
could have helped Spain when it came to exploring, and maybe could have been one of the reasons why Spain prospered in that area. The Aztec
would have known almost nothing about the ocean. They lived in an isolated valley with lakes and rivers. They wouldn't have known a single thing
about exploration and navigating the sea because the geography of their land was different from Spain's, and they would have had to travel out of
their valley to get to the ocean.

History can also affect a society's worldview in countless ways. It would have affected the beliefs and religions that the Aztec and the Spanish would
have had. Because the societies of the Aztec and Spanish had very different histories, they would have also had different religions and different
beliefs. They wouldn't have worshipped the same gods or viewed the world in the same way. History would have also affected the Aztec and
Spanish societies' customs and traditions. Because of their different histories, they would have been taught how to do things differently and would
have had diffferent ways of showing appreciation to their gods or celebrating their different holidays. History would have affected their art and their
architecture. For example, Spanish architecture resembles Islamic architecture, because for a long time the Moors had control over Spain and left their
traditions and their way of doing things behind when they were eventually expelled from the country. The Aztec art and architecture, would have
been influenced by many different societies, like the Toltec, Olmec, and Tlacopan, also living with them in the valley, and by their gods and their religion.

Two different geographies, and two different histories, makes for two different societies and two different worldviews.

Resources Images:

Map of Mexico. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from, http://www.2cairo.com/countries/information/images/maps/americas/mexico_rel97.jpg

Tourizm Maps. (2006). Map of Spain. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from, http://www.trustworldproperties.com/countryprofiles/countryimages/large_map-of-spain2.jpg

Huitzilopochtli. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from, http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~vms/carlton/Renaissance/Aztecs/Huitzilopochtli2.jpg

Tenochtitlan. (n.d.) Retrieved April 20, 2009, from, https://learninglatinamerica.wikispaces.com/file/view/tenochtitlan.jpg/30642476/tenochtitlan.jpg

Jone Lewis. (2003). Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand Meeting with Christopher Columbus. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from, https://learninglatinamerica.wikispaces.com/file/view/tenochtitlan.jpg/30642476/tenochtitlan.jpg

Catholic Faith and Reason (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from, http://catholicfaithandreason.org/Faith&Reason-2.jpg

Spanish (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from, http://www.kwantlen.ca/__shared/assets/Spanish_Architecture2473.jpg

Carolyn Weaver. (2004.). Mask of Death and Rebirth. retrieved April 21, 2009, from, http://news.spirithit.com/images/uploads/culture_art_ext_194x215/12.16.04_aztec-1_378.jpg

Aztec and Maya Art. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from, http://www.aztecartandmore.com/files/2608104/uploaded/P-1.jpg

Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2009, from, http://mycrazylosttheory.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/tezcatlipoca-quezalcoatl.jpg

Aztec Human Sacrifice. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22. 2009, from, http://history.missouristate.edu/jchuchiak/aztecs40.gif

Triple Alliance. (n.d.) Retrieved April 22, 2009, from, http://www.legendsandchronicles.com/wp-content/uploads/images/aztec/aztec_warriors_1.jpg

The Mighty Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2009, from, http://www.legendsandchronicles.com/wp-content/uploads/images/aztec/aztec_warriors_1.jpg

Ferdinand and Isabella. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2009, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IsabellaofCastile05.jpg

Christopher Columbus cominng to Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2009, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IsabellaofCastile05.jpg

The Aztec. (n.d.) Retrieved April 23, 2009, from, http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~vms/carlton/Renaissance/Aztecs/
The Aztec and the Spanish
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