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Sustainable Cities and Waste

Miller Chapters 21 and 22
by

Michael Stano

on 4 March 2016

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Transcript of Sustainable Cities and Waste

Sustainable Cities
urban land use and management
Urban
Rural
town plus its suburbs
City = large number of people with a variety of professions who depend on resources from the outside of city boundary
an area with a population less than 2,500 people
Village = group of rural households liked by custom, culture,family ties. Historical utilization of natural resources
Why would areas increase in population?
Urbanization
Urban growth
Degree of urbanization is percentage of population living in area of greater than 2,500 people
Urban growth due to
natural increase - births
immigration - poor are pulled to urban areas or are pushed from rural areas
Trends
Increase of 2% to 45% of people in urban areas since 1950
By 2050 about 66% of the world’s people will be living in urban areas
the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change
megacities and megalopolis
Chain of large cities
Today, more than 400 cities have over 1 mil. or more people. 19 megacities with over 10 mil. People i.e.Tokyo (28 mil), Mexico City (18 mil), New York (17 mil).
Most of growth in developing countries will be urban growth with all of its problems
38% of the people in live in cities. But by 2025 it will be 54%.
what are the problems?
short on water, have waste & pollution problems.
Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized
slums, squatter, settlements and shantytowns
at least 1 billion people live in crowed slums of inner cities. No access to water, sewer, electricity, education etc. 100 mil people are homeless & sleep on the streets
Major Spatial Patterns
Concentric Circle City
New York
Sector City
Multiple Nuclei City
Megalopolis
when separate cities join such as the Bowash
Los Angeles
large urban area extending from San Frdancisco to San Jose, CA
1. Central business district (CBD)
2. Deteriorating transition zone
3. Worker’s homes
4. Middle-class suburbs
5. Commuter's zone
1. High-rent residential
2. Intermediate-rent residential
3. Low-rent residential
4. Education and recreation
5. Transportation
6. Industrial
7. Core (CBD)
1. CBD
2. Wholesale, light manufacturing
3. Low-rent residential
4. Intermediate-rent residential
5. High-rent residential
6. Heavy manufacturing
7. Outlying business district
8. Residential Suburb
9. Industrial Suburb
Deteriorating services
Aging infrastructures
Budget crunches from lost tax revenues as businesses and affluent people leave
Rising poverty with violence, drugs, decay
Urban sprawl - growth of low-density development on edges of cities and towns
Major Urban Problems in U.S
45% of people living in 5% of land – cities – consume 75% of the world’s resources
Urban areas depend upon imports

recycling more economically feasible
decreased birth rates reduces environmental pressures
per capita expenditures on environmental protection high in urban areas
population concentration impacts biodiversity less
Benefits of urbanization:
Destruction of plant life - what is $ value?
Cities produce little of own food
Urban heat island effect --> dust dome
Water supply and flooding problems
High pollution exposure
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFboV2m1yuw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnBO4vX82Fs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVslbZGSl_8
Excessive noise exposure  health effects
Hearing loss, hypertension, muscle tension, migraines, headaches, higher cholesterol levels, gastric ulcers, irritability, insomnia, psychological disorders, aggression

education
social services
medical care
All Centralized
infectious disease spread
high density population
inadequate drinking and sewage system
physical injuries
pollution exposure
Transportation Type
1. depends if gas is cheap 2. city can grow out
UHIE
Sustainable City Examples
San Francisco
New York City
Detroit
Out of 27 major cities in the US and Canada it is the most sustainable
Ranks 3rd out of 27 cities in US and Canada on Sustainability
Voted the least sustainable out of 27 major cities in US and Canada
Sustainability Based On;
CO2
Land Use
Energy
Building
Transport
Water
Waste
Air
Policy (Govt)
production based on GDP
and per person
CO2 reduction Strategies
Based on pop. density, green spaces, urban sprawl
Based on usage per person, GDP, and energy policy
# of LEED certified buildings, energy efficiency standards and building incentives
based on commute time, public transport supply, how many people commute by foot, bicycle, or public transport
based on storm water treatment, usage, and leaks
percent of recycling and policy
NOx, SOx, and PM emissions, clean air policy
Green Action Plan and Policy
14.5 metric tons of CO2 pp
52 gigajoules pp US Avg
LA - 20% of power comes from renewables 47% wind, 30% hydro, 22% geothermal
Chicago - 41 acre solar plant over a brownfield
land previously used for industrial purposes
Mission Bay CA, former railyard
Cuts 14,000 Tons of Green House Gases per year
Vancouver - 4.2 metric tons of CO2 pp due to policy and hydropower
12% of cities on average are green space
New York #1 on list
MillionTreesNYC
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGgd5YTOuUA
http://www.milliontreesnyc.org/html/home/home.shtml
LEED Certification
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GutUg3FU2ak
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Seattle
- plans to retrofit building with energy efficiency design to save 70,000 metric tons of CO2, while creating 2000 jobs
http://www.usgbc.org/
Denver - TREX and Fastracks
1.1 mile of public transport network per sq mi vs. Europe 3.1 miles of public transport network per sq mi.
Transport expansion program to widen highways and install intelligent transport systems
Adding 122 miles of light rail
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4AYPEMMgfc
Calgary 30/30 program
reduce water consumption by 30% in 30 years
mandatory meters on all home = 60% reduction on average
155 gallons/day
NYC 69 gallons/day
26% of waste in recyled on average in American Cities
San Francisco recycles 77% of its waste
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fT0bEZCwawU
Density Dependant
PM and NOx decline noticebly with a decrease in population
Vancouver PM - 7lbs per person vs avg of 25lbs
Sulfur Oxides - 5 lbs per person vs. 22 lbs
Nitrogen Oxides - 27 lbs per person vs 66
Best Air Quality
NYC, Denver, and Washington DC are rated the best in terms of GAP's
Washington DC = Climate of Opportunity
school programs and continuing education in sustainability practices.
St louis = worst air = heavy vehicle traffic
35 PM /55 SOx / 66 NOx
scored low on public transport also 23 out of 27
1000 ppl per sq mi or more
Waste
Solid Waste
Hazardous Waste
Average american produces 4.4 pounds (2 kg) of garbage a day, or a total of 29 pounds (13 kg) per week and 1,600 pounds (726 kg) per year. Not counting industrial or commercial waste
any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid or gas
Industrial solid
waste
mines, agriculture, industry
Municipal Solid
Waste
MSW = garbage/trash produced from
homes and workplace
7.6 billion tons of industrial solid waste each year
Long Island DEC Crackdowns
on Industrial Waste
http://www.longislandpress.com/2010/12/28/dec-cracks-down-on-illegal-solid-waste-on-long-island/
"Scoop and fill"
C&D
Construction and Demolition
paper, cardboard, food wastes, e-waste
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1n3Fb5FqyU
goes to landfills, dumps, transfer stations, waste to energy facilities (incinerators) or MRFs
aka toxic waste
toxic avenger
threatens human health
or the environment
poisonous, corrosive, chemically reactive, flammable
industrial solvents, hospital medical waste, car batteries, etc...
organic compounds - solvents, pesticides, dioxins, pcb's
toxic heavy metals - lead mercury, arsenic
General Electric and Hudson River Dredging
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/24/science/earth/24hudson.html?_r=1
PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, discharged by two G.E. factories into the Hudson river over a 30-year period ending in 1977
Dredging of Hudson north of Albany
http://www.epa.gov/hudson/
200 mile cleanup of Hudson
http://epa.gov/region02/superfund/hudson/returningarivertohealth.html
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2011/02/18/hudson-river-fish-evolved-in-a-flash-to-survive-polluted-waters/
EPA Documentary
Evolving Fish
one of the most polluted rivers in US
http://www.storyofstuff.org/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
Waste Management
Waste Reduction
reducing environmental impact of wastes without reducing wastes
less waste and pollution is produced and wastes are thought of as resources
Integrated waste management
Waste reduction and waste management strategies combined
Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
consume less, and live simpler
rely on items that can be used more than once
separate and recycle materials made of glass, paper, metal
buy goods made from recycled materials
Prevention
Preferred
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOa1kHEiIpg
salvaging automobile parts, flea markets, and freecycle.org
http://groups.freecycle.org/nassaufreecycle/posts/offer
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYkw7Jx6Xnw
Closed Loop Recycling
Primary
Two Types of Recycling
Secondary Recycling
goods are recycled into products of the same type
i.e. aluminum cans made into aluminum cans
waste materials are converted into different products.
newspapers turned into insulation
plastics turned into carpets
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--DdM5UUjug
http://www.theplastiki.com/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s3Kbu4ZVTzw
To mix or Separate? That is the question.
Material Recovery Facilities
Source Separation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GP3JuiX5BY
machines and workers separate material where materials may be recycled or burned
expensive to build, may emit CO2, toxic air, and toxic ash
Single Stream Separation
separate your garbage into recyclable categories
people are charged by how many bags of mixed solid waste they produce, and not charged for recyclables
the more you recycle, the less you pay for trash pick up
Then there's Nature's approach
composting
a form of recycling that mimics nature - decomposition
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pizGsrmiL4
Vermiculture
worm composting
increases rate at which compost forms
Possible cons to Recycling
may cost more than incinerating or dumping in landfill where space isn't a problem
source separation can be inconvienient
Burn
Bury
Waste to energy incinerators
reduce volume of solid waste by 90%
cleaner than burning coal
recover and sell metals from Incinerator Bottom Ash (IBA)
But there are some problems
require the use of scrubbers, and modern air pollution controls
expensive to build and difficult to obtain build permits
competes with recycling
encourages waste production
Open Dumps
produces bottom ash that goes to landfill, but can be recycled into an aggregate (asphalt, building blocks, etc..)
holes where garbage is deposited
open dump in indiana
Sanitary Landfills
solid waste is spread thin, compacted, and covered with clay or foam.
http://www.ban.org/photogallery/index.html#Guiyu
advantages
no burning, little odor
low cost
can use filled land for other purposes
Disadvantages
noise, dust, and traffic
slow decomp
leaks?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmtOuAed5nM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elCLuAIkook
http://www.newsday.com/opinion/stinky-choices-at-brookhaven-landfill-1.3562171
Using Integrated Management to reduce hazardous waste
Hazardous Waste Disposal
produce less
convert to less hazardous substances
long term safe storage
Brownfield
Superfund
an uncontrolled or abandoned place where hazardous waste is located, possibly affecting local ecosystems or people.
real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
When Hazardous Waste is not disposed of properly
http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/
http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/
http://www.newsday.com/long-island/nassau/epa-names-new-superfund-site-in-nassau-1.3174631
http://www.epa.gov/region2/cleanup/sites/nytoc_sitename.htm
http://www.nassaucountyny.gov/agencies/OCD/brownfields.php
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lh28eUzKYKA&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL5DA95539E5519072
Dumping-by-export of hazardous wastes is prohibited by an international treaty called the Basel Convention. Lead acid batteries and other used electronics are covered by this treaty.
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/15/opinion/recycling-toxic-wastes.html
US, Afghanistan, Haiti have not signed this
Recycling and re-using hazardous waste
Many companies such as The Environmental Quality Company, takes in various e-waste, and hazardous waste to reclaim valuable metals
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OU9WmlXgvuE
http://www.ban.org/photogallery/index.html#Guiyu
boy in Ghana burning E-waste to extract copper
Detoxifying Hazardous Waste
Physical
Chemical
Biological
filter solids, using charcoal or resin filters.
cyclodextrin, chemical that moves through the soil, picking up pesticides and fertilizers polluting groundwater and soil
ringed sugar molecule
bio remediation
using bacteria and enzymes to break down toxic substances
takes a little longer to work, but is a lot cheaper
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM5bQscTjgs
Phytoremediation
natural or genetically engineered plants to absorb, filter, and remove contaminants from polluted soil or water.
Sunflowers in Japan
Poplars and Willows in Fort Jackson
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUYTK9B2RSw
Plasma Arc
decomposing hazardous wastes at high temperatures through an electric arc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqrAWYtd6RI&feature=related
expensive, produces CO and CO2, may vaporize some toxic metals
Hazardous Waste Storage
Bury it
deep-well disposal
pumped through a pipe into non-porous rock, below aquifers
safe, can retrieve wastes, low cost
fractures in Earth will allow wastes to move
Surface Impoundments
ponds, pits, or lagoons that have liners where hazardous wastes are stored.
Water is evaporated off, leaving behind a concentrated material
low cost, easy to build, can retrieve wastes, can store for a long time with double liners
ground water contamination if leaks, VOC's may be released, may overflow due to flooding
Encourage Waste
Secure Hazardous Waste Landfills
hazardous waste is put into drums and buried in carefully designed and monitored sites
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKIM9sE0t6I
www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZmVHW-OJTk
is made up of a wide variety of non-hazardous materials that result from the production of goods and products.
Full transcript