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Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

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Sam B

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

-sampling method not specified
-Participants: unknown number of undergraduate students
-used dual-task paradigms (all experiments)
-laboratory experiment (all experiments)
Aim of study
Aim was to examine whether reasoning, language comprehension, and list learning involve the same limited capacity as short term memory
-all questions answered (unknown number of questions)
-no mistakes made
-time taken was longer than expected (amount not specified)
Articulatory control system
-known as the "inner voice" (voice in your head)
-rehearses information verbally
-2 seconds before memory fades from STM
Phonological store
-"inner ear" (not to be confused with the canals in your actual ear)
-uses a sound based code to store information
-memory lasts 1.5-2 seconds if not refreshed by articulatory control system
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
By: Samudraneel Bhattacharyya (aka Bob)
-repeated measures
-make simple true-false decisions about spatially arrayed letters
-participants were also given a string of six to eight digits to repeat immediately after each true-false task.
-most researchers agree with the Working Memory model
-Working Memory Model explains a lot more than the multistore model (in terms of short term memory)
-makes sense of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem solving and visual and spatial processing (application)
-supported by lots of experimental evidence (replicability)
Weaknesses (of study)
-hawthorne effect
-Lieberman criticizes the working memory model as the visuo-spatial sketchpad implies that all spatial information was first visual (they are linked)
-blind people have excellent spatial awareness although they have never had any visual information
-no deception
-no stressful situations
-no pain
-fully debriefed
-no ethical issues if consent was given (unknown)
The working memory applies to real life tasks:
- reading (phonological loop)
- problem solving (central executive)
- navigation (visual and spatial processing)
Central Executive
-responsible for the control and coordination of mental operations such as;
-coordinator of the slave systems
Visuo-Spatial sketchpad
-"inner eye"
-slave system
-handles visual spatial memories (from sensory memories)
Phonological loop
-slave system
-handles verbal and auditory information
-consists of the articulatory control system and the phonological store
Episodic buffer
-temporary storage system
between other systems in working memory
-controlled by central executive
-resembles the concept of episodic memory
-study in 1974 DID NOT consist of;
-episodic buffer
-articulatory control system
-phonological store
Why extra information?
-John Crane's course 'companion'
-study guide
-good for the exams
apologies for not purchasing the $110 study
Thanks for watching!
But wait! There's more!
discovered in the 1990s
discovered in the 1990s
discovered in year 2000

this component is a study itself

based off of all previous studies
apologies for the extra information
+1990s + 2000
Well then, apologies and
This presentation is an example of one of many experiments that have taken place
Say the number
1415627 out loud
and answer
True or false
A precedes B BA

Raise your hand for TRUE
Stand up for FALSE
The components are mere speculations at 1974.
Empirical evidence obtained in the experiments at later dates.
Weakness (of model)
-little direct evidence for how the central executive works and what it does
-central executive has never been measured (until 2000)
-not a comprehensive model of memory (doesn't include sensory memory or long term memory)
-does not explain changes in processing ability
(Aim of the overall study was to prove that STM isn't just one component)
The working memory model made based on two observations:

- If two tasks make use of the same component (of working memory), they cannot be performed successfully together.

- If two tasks make use of different components, it will be done successfully.
How theory is made
The working memory model is made from two observations

- If two tasks make use of the same component (of working memory), they cannot be performed successfully together.

- If two tasks make use of different components, it will be successfully done
Learning Outcomes
• Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process
Full transcript