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Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

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Sam B

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Baddeley and Hitch (1974)


-sampling method not specified
-Participants: unknown number of undergraduate students
-used dual-task paradigms (all experiments)
-laboratory experiment (all experiments)
Aim of study
Aim was to examine whether reasoning, language comprehension, and list learning involve the same limited capacity as short term memory
Results
-all questions answered (unknown number of questions)
-no mistakes made
-time taken was longer than expected (amount not specified)
Evaluation
Strengths
Theory
Articulatory control system
-known as the "inner voice" (voice in your head)
-rehearses information verbally
-2 seconds before memory fades from STM
Phonological store
-"inner ear" (not to be confused with the canals in your actual ear)
-uses a sound based code to store information
-memory lasts 1.5-2 seconds if not refreshed by articulatory control system
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Method
By: Samudraneel Bhattacharyya (aka Bob)
Design
-repeated measures
Procedure
-make simple true-false decisions about spatially arrayed letters
-participants were also given a string of six to eight digits to repeat immediately after each true-false task.
-most researchers agree with the Working Memory model
-Working Memory Model explains a lot more than the multistore model (in terms of short term memory)
-makes sense of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem solving and visual and spatial processing (application)
-supported by lots of experimental evidence (replicability)
Weaknesses (of study)
-hawthorne effect
Critiques
-Lieberman criticizes the working memory model as the visuo-spatial sketchpad implies that all spatial information was first visual (they are linked)
-blind people have excellent spatial awareness although they have never had any visual information
Ethics
-no deception
-no stressful situations
-no pain
-fully debriefed
-no ethical issues if consent was given (unknown)
Applications
The working memory applies to real life tasks:
- reading (phonological loop)
- problem solving (central executive)
- navigation (visual and spatial processing)
Central Executive
-responsible for the control and coordination of mental operations such as;
-reasoning
-comprehension
-learning
-memory
-coordinator of the slave systems
Visuo-Spatial sketchpad
-"inner eye"
-slave system
-handles visual spatial memories (from sensory memories)
Phonological loop
-slave system
-handles verbal and auditory information
-consists of the articulatory control system and the phonological store
Episodic buffer
-temporary storage system
-
interface
between other systems in working memory
-controlled by central executive
-resembles the concept of episodic memory
Note!
-study in 1974 DID NOT consist of;
-episodic buffer
-articulatory control system
-phonological store
Why extra information?
-John Crane's course 'companion'
-study guide
-good for the exams
apologies for not purchasing the $110 study
Thanks for watching!
But wait! There's more!
discovered in the 1990s
discovered in the 1990s
discovered in year 2000

this component is a study itself

based off of all previous studies
apologies for the extra information
+1990s + 2000
Well then, apologies and
Firstly!
Secondly!
Lastly!
This presentation is an example of one of many experiments that have taken place
Example
Say the number
1415627 out loud
and answer
True or false
A precedes B BA

Raise your hand for TRUE
Stand up for FALSE
The components are mere speculations at 1974.
Empirical evidence obtained in the experiments at later dates.
Weakness (of model)
-little direct evidence for how the central executive works and what it does
-central executive has never been measured (until 2000)
-not a comprehensive model of memory (doesn't include sensory memory or long term memory)
-does not explain changes in processing ability
(Aim of the overall study was to prove that STM isn't just one component)
The working memory model made based on two observations:

- If two tasks make use of the same component (of working memory), they cannot be performed successfully together.

- If two tasks make use of different components, it will be done successfully.
How theory is made
The working memory model is made from two observations

- If two tasks make use of the same component (of working memory), they cannot be performed successfully together.

- If two tasks make use of different components, it will be successfully done
Learning Outcomes
• Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process
Full transcript