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Transcript of Photography
-George Eastman Photography PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Photojournalism
generally practiced by professionals is that serious photojournalists must be sure that their shots maintain the integrity of the original scene.
Photojournalism requires the photographer to shoot only the facts: no alteration or embellishment of the photo is permitted. Photojournalism pictures are often powerful images that engage the viewer with the news story. Knowing how to take such shots to capture the original emotion is often learned only through years of practice and experience. Robert Capa (born Endre Ernő Friedmann October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954)
Capa originally wanted to be a writer; however, he found work in photography in Berlin and grew to love the art.
In 1933, he moved from Germany to France because of the rise of Nazism, but found it difficult to find work there as a freelance journalist.
Capa’s first published photograph was that of Leon Trotsky making a speech in Copenhagen on “The Meaning of the Russian Revolution” in 1932 making him one of world’s famous photographers. The art or process of producing pictures by this action of light. The first camera was invented by Nicéphore Niépce he was French he is one of the most famous inventors for producing the first photograph in 1825; When he took his first photograph it soon faded away and was not permanent because he used a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light, so when he took the picture out into the light it just got dark almost black straight away; This was the first recorded introduction to photography, but some people think that it can be traced further back to “book of optics” (this is the way in which people discovered light can be changed and manipulated) discovered by scientists in Iraq History of Photography Types of Photography Documentary photographs
It tell stories with images. The main difference between photojournalism and documentary photography is that documentary photography is meant to serve as a historical document of a political or social era while photojournalism documents a particular scene or instance.
A documentary photographer may shoot a series of images of the inner city homeless or chronicle the events of international combat. As with photojournalism, documentary photography seeks to show the truth without manipulating the image. Sports photography is one of the fastest and most exciting types of photography. As with any action shot, a good sports photographer has to know his or her subject well enough to anticipate when to take pictures.
The same rule goes for photographers taking action shots of animals in nature or of a plane taking off. Action Photography Macro photography
It describes the field of photography in which pictures are taken at close range.
Macro photography subjects may include insects, flowers, the texture of a woven sweater or any object where close-up photography reveals interesting details. Micro photography
It uses specialized cameras and microscopes to capture images of extremely small subjects.
Micro photography is used in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, biology and medicine. It sometimes confused with pornography, may be sexy and erotic but it is not pornographic.
Instead of focusing on nudity or lurid poses, glamour photography seeks to capture its subject in suggestive poses that emphasize curves and shadows. Glamour Photography Aerial Photography An aerial photographer specializes in taking photos from the air.
Photos may be used for surveying or construction, to capture birds or weather on film or for military purposes. Underwater photography
Usually employed by scuba divers or snorkelers.
However, the cost of scuba diving, coupled with often expensive and unwieldy underwater photography equipment, makes this one of the less common types of photography.
Artistic photography can embrace a wide variety of subjects.
In all cases, the photographs must have aesthetic value to be considered art. Art Photography Portraiture is one of the oldest types of photography.
The goal of portraiture is to capture the personality of the subject or group of subjects on film. PORTRAITURE Advertising Photography
Many professional photographers devote their careers to advertising photography.
The need for unique and eye-catching advertising copy means the photographer may work with multiple types of photography, including macrophotography and glamour photography. Travel photography may span several categories of photography, including advertising, documentary or vernacular photography that depicts a particularly local or historical flavor.
A travel photographer can capture the feel of a location with both landscapes and portraiture. Travel Photography Panoramic Wide view of the subject (often used with large group shots, or landscape shots) Principles of Photography
Ten tips for better Photography Simplicity - The simpler, the better Distractions - Avoid them! Cropping - Do this with the camera first. Capture the most important part of the picture - the part that makes the story. Your pictures need to have a variety of types of croppings. Perspective - Try to get interesting perspective that other photographers have not tried, or that you have not often seen. Bend your knees, and tippy-toe whenever necessary. Standing on a bench, chair, ladder, etc. can be an excellent helper. Lighting - Use natural lighting whenever you can. You want to create a mood with your lighting. Watch where you have shadows. Any indoor picture may need a flash. Action - Place yourself close to the action. Try to get people in action. Capture their daily activities. Sports scenes lend themselves to fast action. When photographing sports, try to get as many faces as you can. Contrast - Try to get your blacks as black as possible and your whites as white as possible. Contrast small shapes with large shapes. Creativity - Create a new view of a common picture. See things in a way that you never noticed before. Crop your center of interest so that it is telling the whole story - showing faces, expressions, moods, movements, stances, situations, and experiences that we all share at one time or another. Find our likenesses and differences. Consistency - Be as consistent as you can. At first this will be difficult, but it will slowly start to make an impression on you when you do certain things the same that give you good pictures. Follow that, so your pictures are the best possible. Balance - Each picture has its own balance and should be pleasing to look at. It can be formally balanced or informally balanced, but the basic principles of design apply here too. Try not to make something look like it is falling off the page, etc. Depth Depth is the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in a photograph. A sense of depth is created using focus, framing and angles. Focus involves zooming in on particular objects so they are crisp and clear and other objects are blurry and unclear. Framing involves identifying an obvious foreground object close to the camera, with the main subject of the photograph further away. Line The lines of a photograph guide the eyes of the viewer around the photograph, and a photograph with interesting lines seizes the viewer's attention. Different lines can be used to convey different moods. Horizontal lines can be used to convey a sense of rest or stability. Vertical lines can be used to convey many different moods, such as power, strength and growth. Diagonal lines convey action and dynamism. Texture Texture is a property of a photograph that inspires a sense of tactility in the observer: the photograph makes you want to reach in and touch it. The texture will involve the detailed surface properties of the object or objects depicted in the photograph. These can be irregularities in the surface of a piece of wood or the complexity of a patterned fabric. Patterns and Shape Patterns and shapes can be aesthetically pleasing and draw attention to a photograph.There are three important aspects of patterns and shape: rhythm, symmetry and triangles. Rhythm is where a shape is repeated in a photograph. Symmetry is when a photograph looks like it consists of two objects that are mirror images of each other. Symmetry can be subverted so the two objects are similar but not quite alike, which can be used to highlight difference and contrast. Triangles are formed within a photograph by two diagonal lines. Vantage Point The vantage point is the position from which the photograph was taken. It is the point of view of the viewer of the photograph. Different vantage points can convey different relationships with the objects depicted in the photograph. Viewed from a low vantage point looking up at an object conveys dominance, power and authority. Viewing from a level vantage point conveys neutrality and objectivity. A vantage point above and looking down on the object suggests vulnerability and weakness. Composition Composition is the arrangement of objects in a photograph. There are various guidelines and artistic conventions that attempt to describe what makes a good composition. The rule of thirds involves dividing the rectangular frame of the photograph into nine equally-sized sections using two imaginary vertical lines and two imaginary horizontal lines. The photographer then tries to align the main objects of the photograph along the lines or at their points of intersection. This is believed to create a balanced and aesthetically pleasing composition. At its most basic level a camera is a device for capturing and recording light, therefore patterns of light and shade are the most basic elements of any photograph. The level of light in a photograph affects the level of detail visible in light or dark areas in the photograph: if the camera is exposed to a high level of light shaded areas will seem darker. The angle of light refers to the location of the original source of light in the photograph and determines the distribution of shadows in the photograph. Light 7 Basic Elements of Photography (13 September1960-27 July 19941994)He committed suicide at the age of 33
South Africa Pulitzer Prize winner, Kevin Carter, took his own life months after winning the Pulitzer Prize for feature photography for a haunting Sudan famine picture.
A free-lance photographer for Reuter and Sygma Photo NY and former PixEditor of the Mail & Guardian, Kevin dedicated his career to covering the ongoing conflict in his native South Africa.
He was highly honored by the prestigious Ilford Photo Press Awards on several occasions including News Picture of the Year 1993. Kevin Carter (1906-1979) was born in Riga, Latvia. He studied engineering in Dresden before moving to Paris, where he set up his photographic studio in 1932.
Halsman’s bold, spontaneous style won him many admirers. His portraits of actors and authors appeared on book jackets and in magazines; he worked with fashion (especially hat designs), and filled commissions for private clients.
1936, Halsman was known as one of the best portrait photographers in France. Philippe Halsman World's renowned photographers