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The Robotic arm and Mars Rover

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by

Cindy Lin

on 22 May 2014

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Transcript of The Robotic arm and Mars Rover

The Robotic Arm and
Mars Rover

-Natalie, Eloise and Cindy
The Robotic Arm
The Arm:

-Consists of three sections
-Each section is separated by joints which allows the arm to move without hindrance.
Allows the part of the
arm to move up-down
and left-right
Allows the forearm
to move up-down
The Fingers:
-Move freely and individually
-Three joints(stepping motors),allowing stronger and more flexible grip.
Wires:
-Connects the computer to the current sensors
-Electronic signals are transferred from current sensor to the computer
The Computer:
-receives input data from the electrodes and translates them into recognisable data before outputting the correct data and controlling the movement of the robotic arm
-Normally stationed on a seperate desk.
Current sensor:
-Detects the electronic current of the electrodes and generates a signal proportion to it
.
Electrodes:
-An electrical conductor used to make contact
with a non-metallic part of a circuit.
-Two, quarter-inch square electrode grids with 96 tiny contact points each
-Implanted into a patient’s brain (left motor cortex, the part of the brain that initiates movement), where it receives electrical signals from the surrounding brain neurons.


Type of robot

-An anthropomorphic robot
-BCI (brain controlled interface) which means that it is a robot that mimics the actions of living things
-performs human-like body movements like grabbing objects and flexing its fingers
-BCI is controlled by the neuron activities in the brain.

How it works.

1.The electrodes are implanted
2.The patient ‘thinks’ about how she wants the robotic arm to move
3.The signal is picked up by the electrodes and transferred to a current sensor
4.The current sensor transfers these electrical signals to the computer
5.Software translates the signals to computer recognisable ones
6.microprocessors processes this data and outputs the data to the actuators
7.stepping motors help the arm to perform precise actions.
8.Force sensors measure contact force with the object and sends feedback to the control systems
-a closed-loop system due to presence of feedback.
8.robot arm perform task

Effects on society


-It gives quadriplegics a healthy ‘limb’ that allows them to perform daily tasks without the help of their doctors or family members.
- greater independence for people who are unable to move their own arms.
-gives disabled people in our society a sense of hope for their future.
-bypass nerve damage and re-awaken a person's own paralyzed muscles which might end up ‘curing’ the quadriplegics.

Task of the Robotic Arm
-Helps the patient to mimic hand movements , just by thinking.
-This robot allows quadriplegic (people with disorders) to complete tasks like feeding herself a chocolate bar and writing by only thinking about moving it just like the way an unimpaired brain controls healthy limbs.
Mars Rover
Tasks of the Mars Rover
-collect samples of Martian rocks and atmosphere
-take photos on the Martian environment and to transfer the information back to Earth.
-explore and search areas of Mars for past and present conditions that could be favourable and capable of preserving a record of life.
Type of Robot

-automated motor vehicle, which means that its system can run by itself without human intervention.
Why:
-own power and electronic system, consisting of solar arrays and lithium ion batteries, which can generate and store electricity by converting solar power.
-The drive system uses this stored power.
Also:
-consists of smaller robots especially the two robotic arms (anthropomorphic robotic arm).
-This is because it moves in the same way as a human arm with an elbow and wrist

How it works
1.Solar arrays collect energy from the sun and transfer it into electricity
2.This electricity is then used by the drive system that control the movement and speed of the wheels and drives the vehicle forward.
3.Sensors and cameras collect data and images.
4.Images are compressed into about 8 bits per pixel using ICER (a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers. ICER has both lossy and lossless compression modes.)
5.The images are then stored and sent to Earth or nearby spaceships through antennas.

Effects on society

-built to perform space exploration as it carries out tasks less expensively and more quickly.
-well-suited for dangerous space missions that are impossible for humans to do and transfers accurate information back to Earth.
-helps scientists to develop further knowledge on what Mars is like and whether it contained past or even present life.
-find new materials and elements that humans may use in industry
-future discoveries may even help to make life possible on Mars


The Drive System
1.Six Circular wheels:
-used for moving about on the rocky surface of Mars
2.Four steering motors, located near the two front and back wheels, control movement and speed of wheels.
-uses the stored solar power

Two robotic arms

-robotic arms that move in
the same way as a human
arm with an elbow and wrist
-Microscopic image-taker

Rock Abrasion tool:
-grinding the rock samples
-removing dusty and weathered
rock surfaces

Panoramic Camera:

-determining the mineralogy, texture, and structure of the local terrain.



Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES):

*close examination of rock and soil samples, determining the formation process of Martian rocks. ---*Measure temperature of the Martian atmosphere.

Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS):
-close-up analysis of the elements that make up rocks and soils.

Mössbauer Spectrometer (MB):
-close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.



The Power System
-Solar arrays collect solar energy from the sunlight.
-At night, two rechargeable lithium ion batteries weighing 7.15 kg each provide energy
-can enter a low-power hibernation mode as sunlight declines on Mars and solar panels struggle to provide solar energy for its batteries.
-When conditions become more favourable it 'awakens'

The Mars rover and the robotic arm different from each other apart from the fact that they both have a robotic arm component. The Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle. It has its own power and drive system. No human intervention is needed and it can cope with sudden complications like low battery. Thus the mars rover is very independent.
On the other hand the robotic arm is an anthropomorphic robot that relies on human intervention as it is connected to a computer and needs electricity which means it needs to be repeatedly charged by humans. The electrodes and the current sensors somewhat acts like the antennae of the Mars rover as they both receive information information in forms of currents.
Overall, the Mars rover is a fully built and very independent robot whilst the robotic arm not only requires human intervention but also needs to be attached onto the wheelchair of the quadriplegic.
Differences and Similarities
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