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Art History: Lesson 2 Roman,Byzantine,Gothic Eras
Transcript of Art History: Lesson 2 Roman,Byzantine,Gothic Eras
Roman-Gothic Eras Whatza Point? To continue our brief exploration of western art and its development throughout history
To understand how one era in art history affects another
To fulfill Fine Art ("F") requirement Review: Prehistoric Art Started in Western Europe = Western Art
Civilizations around Mediterranean Sea, Europe, U.S. 42,000 - 1000 BCE
3 Kinds of Art:
Sculpture in the round
Relief Sculpture Lots of Animals, Women
used in Prehistoric Art Abstractions: basic recognizable forms not intended to be exact replicas of nature Stonehenge: 3000-1500 BCE
Southern England Ancient Greece
3000 BCE-0 Free-Standing Statues:
Kouros/Kore=Young Man/Young Woman
"Ideal," Gods/Goddesses Original Setting of Art is Important Greek Sculptors: Classical Period
Polykleitos "Spear Bearer"
Changed from Heroic to Everyday
Market Woman Venus de Milo:
Transition between the two periods Ancient Romans 120 BCE - 400 CE
Conquered and ruled much of the area around the Mediterranean Sea
Roman civilization came to dominate the western world Romans excelled in the art of architechture
In painting and sculpture, often borrowed from and imitated the Greeks "Aulus Metellus"
A Roman Official,
Late 2nd or Early 1st Century BCE D. Death Masks Early practice in Roman culture
Created likenesses of revered figures and distinguished
ancestors for display on public occasions,
most commonly funerals. Patrician carrying
Two Portrait Busts
of His Ancestors
Sometime around the year 0 Roman Death Masks
Recovered from underwater Kept the death mask in the home in a place of honor.
On the occasion of a funeral they decorated and displayed these images
Took them to the funeral, putting them on men who seemed close in stature and posture to the original ancestor
Gave the appearance of the presence of famous and revered men in attendance at the funeral
This kept the celebrity of those who performed noble deeds alive and immortal Augustus of Primaporta
Early 1st Century Marcus Aurelius
176 CE "Spoils from the Temple of Solomon"
Relief in the passageway
of the Arch of Titus in Rome 1. Well-Known for Architectural Contributions Roman Arch Arch of Titus Roman Colosseum
72-80 CE Roman Architectural Order, Actually from Greeks Pantheon, Rome Representing the Human Form Developed concrete as a building material, as opposed to stone. It was cheaper, lighter, easily transported, and required less skill on the part of the laborers. Roman sculptors developed portraiture as a major art form. A. Created official images Julius Caesar on silver coin Constantine the Great
Marble, height of head 8'6" Romans were very good at creating sophisticated visual propaganda. Roman art served the state and imperial authority. C. Created Representations of Private Individuals: Young Flavian Woman
Marble Portrait Bust of Young Woman
Marble Portrait Statue of a Boy
1st Century CE
Bronze Portrait Bust of Man
1st Century CE
Marble Statue of
Imperial Family Member
27 BCE - 68 CE
Marble The accurate descriptions of actual individuals in some portraiture may have derived from the practice of making death masks of deceased relatives. A. Colosseum Held 50,000 people
Floor made of heavy wood that covered layers of cells below in which gladiators and animals were held. B. Pantheon Built to honor all the gods
Walls are over 20 feet thick
Only source of light is the 30 ft. oculus (eye-like opening at the top of the dome)
Some of Italy's great artists and composers buried there C. Other structures Arches Several emperors built large triumphal arches to commemorate their greatest achievements City Planning Cities equipped with sewers, running water, city squares, shopping streets, residential areas, paved streets, warehouses Served the purpose of allowing Roman subjects to know what their rulers looked like Only equestrian statue from antiquity to survive Very realistic
Different from the Greek Kouros and Kore B. Relief Sculpture Used to record important events in the lives of Roman Emperors Arch of Titus Inside the arch... Roman Aquaduct Arches White House Arch of Constantine Column of Trajan Closeup-
Column of Trajan Roman Death Mask
80 BCE Gothic Art Main Points:
Mid-1100's - late 16th century, in some areas
Cities grow during this period and cathedral building flourishes
The church becomes the most important influence in art and daily life
Most art was commissioned by the church Architectural Contributions Flying Buttresses Saint Denis, outside Paris.
Began in 1140
Abbot Suger started to enlarge and redesign his small church for the many who were visiting the chapel.
Insisted it be beautiful and richly decorated because anything less would be unsuitable for God's house. Mainly concerned with light. Chartres Cathedral, France Most famous: Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris Stained Glass St. Remi Gothic Church Infancy of Christ Window,
Chartres Cathedral Chartres Cathedral, France Reims Cathedral, France Hieronymus Bosch, Gothic Era Painter Stern moralist, many of his paintings were like sermons, portraying the temptations humankind faced, and the consequences of partaking in them.
Some thought he was crazy, but others were able to see the complexity of his paintings for what it was. Garden of Earthly Delights Paradise with Adam & Eve Earthly Delights Hell Christ enclosing God's eye Anger Pride Lust Idleness Gluttony Avarice Envy Death Last Judgement Heaven Hell 7 Deadly
Sins Review Romans: Best known for architecture
Roman Architectural Order (columns)
In Sculpture & Painting
Borrowed heavily from the Greeks
Created official images of rulers
Relief sculpture of historical events
Created busts/statues of private individuals
Inspired by death masks
Naturalistic/Realistic images Gothic Art: Cities Grow
Church become most important influence
Subject of most art is christianity
Architecture is main contribution
huge intricate altar pieces
Bosch, Paintings were like sermons St. Mary's, England Chartres Cathedral, France Haywain (hay cart) Ecce Homo Path of Life (A Portrait of Christ
Wearing Crown of Thorns) Metallica:
Until It Sleeps
Uses Imagery from Hieronymus Bosch Paintings Huge, ornate altarpieces Rose Window