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Working In The Arts - Organisational structures
Transcript of Working In The Arts - Organisational structures
5th January 2011 What we'll be looking at today:
1. The management/staffing structures of three different arts organisations.
2. What are the purposes of these organisations? Aims, objectives, raison d'etre etc
3. What roles and responsibilities exist within these structures - management and staffing structure
4. Why do we have organisational structure?
5. Hierarchical and different structures.
6. Task Dossiers The National Theatre
Also known as The Royal National Theatre or as simply The National
One of the UK's two most prominently publicly funded theatre companies alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company
Opened in 1976
More on The National...
Produces over 20 productions a year
Has three main auditoriums: Olivier, Lyttleton & the Cottesloe
Offers a mix of new plays and classics with up to 6 productions in repertory at any one time
Pre performance events
Opportunities to learn more about the National's work and discover more about theatre in general (through its Discover programme)
Free live music
Outdoor events (Watch This Space)
Great bookshop! (One of the world's best stocked!)
Workshops and activities
Why does it exist?
The National maintains a balance between self generated income –box office receipts, fundraising, exploitation of National Theatre productions, catering and front
of house trading –and public subsidy from Arts Council England (ACE).
In 1980, 60% of the NT's income came from the state, in 2000 50%, now 30%.
Turnover has doubled over the last eight years as NT has become increasingly entreprenurial. Organisational structure of the National Theatre
The Board The Board
Non-executive and unpaid governing body
Directors and charity trustees who under company and charity law are responsible for policy, administration and general control
Works with the Executive to ensure that the National's remit is fulfilled, that the high standard of the work is maintained and that the organisation is managed efficiently and cost effectively
History of pressure for there to be a national theatre in the UK, that would present 'exemplary theatre'
To 'maintain and re-energise the great traditions of the British stage'
To expand horizons
To reflect the diversity of the nation's culture
To create new work
To engage tomorrow's audiences
To reach as many people as possible, in the UK and abroad
To foster the health of the wider British theatre through collaboration and touring
To benefit people locally, nationally and internationally The Board....
Met 7 times in 2009-10 to ensure it was maintaing effective control over strategic, financial, organisational and compliance issues
At these meetings you would have the Executive Director, Finance Director, Director of Technical Production & Engineering, Associate Directors and NT Associates comprising actors, directors, designers and producers - they all support the Artistic Director in making repertoire decisions
Each area has a head of department who reports to a member of the Executive
Weekly meetings between the Executive and heads of department
Cross departmental working managed through regular group meetings
Key decision making groups would include repertoire planning, capital projects, digital projects, NT Future, Enterprise, diversity, audience experience and health and safety
Communication across the organisation is key and engagement is sought from all employees with the National Theatre's current projects and achievements
All staff invited to a weekly company meeting led by the AD, Nicholas Hytner
Diversity action plan - all staff have to comply with the Natiional's policies and procedures to promote inclusivity and diversity
Production & Stage Management
Health & Safety
Director of Production Technical & Engineering
Director & Executive Director
Associate Producer/Touring Collaborations Pavilion/Dance South West Pavilion Dance
New regional dance centre for the SW
Refers to the building and the programme
Received 3.29 million from Bournemouth Borough Council to renovate a disused part of the Pavilion as part of the Town Centre Master Vision
Hosts 2 dance studios, a theatre seating 200, backstage and front of house facilities, the largest ballroom on the south coast with the main theatre seating 1,400 Dance South West
Regional strategic agency for dance
Brings together a network of partners to enable people in the SW to make, watch and take part in dance
Supports individual partner agencies, joins up agencies for projects across the region and delivers its own dance programme Dance South West contd....
Supported by the Arts Council England (ACE), Bournemouth Borough Council and Youth Dance England
Youth dance, artist development, Dansce Dialogues, Fresh, Dance for Health, dance classes and Cultural Olympiad involvement. How are they linked?
DSW is based at The Pavilion
Pavilion acts as a 'portal' for DSW
Pavilion Dance is a key development for DSW (offering dance opportunities at a local, regional, national and international level) Organisational structure
Finance & Commercial Manager
Marketing & Communications Manager
Artistic Programme Consultant
A bit about Organisational Structure
Why have it? All businesses have to organise what they do
A clear structure makes it easier to see which part of the business does what
They are directed towards the achievement of the organisational aims
(www.bized.co.uk) Not all organisations have hierarchical structures
Organisations can be structured in many different ways
(www.bized.co.uk) By function: arranging the business according to what each section or department does
By product or activity: organised according to the different products made
By area: geographical or regional structure
By customer: where different customer groups have different needs
(www.bized.co.uk) Activate - theatre and dance development agency for Dorset, Bournemouth and Poole Organisational structure
Theatre Development Co-ordinator
Dance Development Co-ordinator
Freelance Project Staff (x5) Task Invent your own arts organisation
Museum You have to decide on how to structure your organisation
The roles you need to create in order for your organisation to work effectively
How many of these roles do you need to create in terms of the size of your organisation?
Why is your organisation set up this way?
What purpose does your organisation serve? What are its aims and objectives?
How will your employees communicate and plan effectively in order to achieve your organisation's aims? Five areas of development
5. Development Three areas of focus:
Artist Development Aims:
Information, advice and advocacy
Promotion and audiences
Production Task feedback What we have learnt today:
The organisational structures of three different arts organisations: The National Theatre, Dance South West and Activate
Why they are structured in this way
Who does what
How these organisations work effectively
Roles and responsibilities
Differences in the structures
Purposes of the organisations
Why we have organisational structure
Invented your own organisation and created a structure for and defined roles and responsibilities within it as well as defining its purpose and type Further reading:
Chong, D. (2002). Arts Management. Routledge (Ch. 10. Organisational forms and dynamics P.126-128)
reference made to the work of Henry Mintzberg (1984)
"who should control the corporation (i.e. salaried managers, trustees, shareholders etc)....raises pertinent issues regarding the corporate governance of arts organisations"
"interested in the private sector debate, from a managerial and organisational perspective, of who should control the large, widely held corporation, how, and for the pursuit of what goals? The debate, according to Mintzberg, addresses fundamental issues of democracy. Control by the owners is weakened as shareholding becomes more dispersed"
"It is recognized that the direct and concerted voices of outsiders needs to be considered"
"stakeholders - for example, funding bodies and arts activists...attempt to regulate, or to pressure the arts organisation"
"All this suggests that arts organisations can be subject to fierce contestation over who controls the agenda"
"Who has power and authority for arts organizations?"
"Boards of trustees are crucial to the governance of arts organisations. Trustees, as the most privilege breed of volunteer, are situated at the top of the organizational chart (as part of the strategic 'apex' which also includes the most senior paid members of staff). Major-decision making powers are vested in these individuals, subject, of course to the institutions charter by-laws and mission statement. Trustees are asked to exercise efefctive control in order to fulfill their role as policy maker, management overseer and performance evaluator. In practice, a smaller executive committee may decide major decisions for the full board to ratify". Getz, D. (2007) Event Studies: Theory, research and policy for planned students. Butterworth-Heinemann
P. 261/262 Ch. 10 Management of Events: Organizational Culture
"In a strong cultural context everyone works together towards common goals because they share the vision and underlying values of the organisation"
Schein (1985) - "assessing organizational culture" "by first identifying superficial but 'tangible attributes' such as facilities, rewards, dress and interactions"
spending "a lot of time within an organization to come to any conclusion about its deepest cultural values"
"recruitment, indoctrination and compulsory conformity to norms ensures that values are preserved, but at the cost of individual choice and expression....if everyone thinks the same way - called 'group think' - there is a serious risk that innovation will be stifled" Getz (cont.d) Organizational and Inter-organizational behaviour P. 264
"Three generic ownership, or legal models found in the events world
1. Private, for profit companies that produce events
2. Government agencies (such as parks and recreation, sport or arts and culture) that produce or facilitate events
3. The large, not for profit sector that includes clubs, charities and event-specific organisations like festival societies
In for-profit companies....owners and employees.
In Government agencies....can be a confusing and stifling bureaucracy to deal with.
In not for profit societies, relationships between boards of directors and professional staff have to be sorted out"
Clancy, P. (1994) Managing the Cultural Sector. Oak Tree Press
The Revolving Door: Profile of the sector (P.32)
"The majority of cultural organizations are small to medium sized enterprises (SME's)"
"More than half of arts organizations (54%) and just less than half of the museum organizations (46%) employ fewer than 8 people"
Also goes on to discuss things like The Nature Of The Workforce, Forms of work etc)
Shore, H. (1987) Arts Administration & Management. Quorum Books
Ch. 1. An Overview of Management & Arts Admin
"Creative management...which is management at its best" (P.10)
"The administrators of arts organisations need to perform a juggling act, trying to balance a host of conflicting demands" (P.11)
"The difficulty of achieving and maintaining integrity can be substantial" (due to financial problems) (P.12)
"Whether profit orientated or non-profit, arts organisations do need to be managed creatively" (P.13)
"...innovative management techniques...must apply ordinary techniques in an innovative way" (P.13) Shore (cont.d)
Ch. 5. Organizing: Creating a Work System (P. 82)
"Any arts organisation that receives funds from foundations, from corporations and especially from government agencies must usually comply with fairly strict accountability requirements"
"By law, each corporation must ordinarily have a permanent committee known as the 'board of directors which is legally accountable for the overall management of the corporation"
"it is clear that a board can be an extremely powerful part of an organization"
"it is usually good for the membership to be reasonably balanced"
"...diverse interests significant to the organisation. Such balance on the board is not easy to achieve"
"inside and outside directors"
"Outside directors useful to view an organisation's problems objectively" (P.88)
"One might choose an individual who possesses a skill vital to the success of the organisation. Many a lawyer or accountant is chosen for that reason" (P.88)
"...fixed term of office - should not exceed 3 years" (p.89)
Thank You References
The Royal National Theatre Annual Report & Financial Statements (2009-10)
National Theatre Website - http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/
Dance South West website - http://www.dancesouthwest.org.uk/
Pavilion Dance website - http://www.paviliondance.org.uk/
Activate website - http://www.activateperformingarts.org.uk/
Chong, D., (2002), Arts Management, Routledge
Getz, D., (2007), Event Studies: Theory, Research and Policy for Planned Events, Butterworth - Heinemann
Clancy, P., (1994), Managing the Cultural Sector, Oak Tree Press
Harvey, S., (1987), Arts Administration & Management, Quorum Books