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Sports injuries

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Jay Moss-Straw

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Sports injuries

Sports injuries
Extrinsic Factors
Incorrect technique
Environmental Factors
Clothing and Footwear
Safety Hazards
Safety Hazards
By listening to safety hazards signs you wont get hurt by the equipment, for example, playing hockey and you swing for the ball and the stick snaps and hits another person, this isn't there fault but the equipments for breaking.
Intrinsic Factors
Training effects
Individual variables
Postural effects
Individual variables
Age, Race and gender can affect a person in their sport, age will as the older person will not be able to outrun a younger person at all due to energetic levels the younger person would have as well as not having aches and pains when running. Race will as well, this is down to genes so black people will be naturally faster and have quicker reactions than white people. Gender can affect it also as women are not as muscular so men will be able to lift heavier things than women.
Postural Effects
Not having a good posture in general such as sitting wrong in a chair can affect the muscles in the back which would result in generally weaker muscles because of it, this would mean a tackle in the back for a footballer or a coming together could damage the muscles in the back and could spell a serious break from football if not for life as a result of having a bad posture.
Training Effects
Training injuries are due to the persons tackling which is their fault for doing the tackle in a incorrect way, they can also injure themselves by accident for instance tripping over the ball or shoe laces and breaking a toe is down to them doing it.
Clothing and Footwear
Not wearing the appropriate clothing or footwear can led to injuries, not wearing the right footwear in football can led to a injury as you may slip when doing a tackle or being tackled and not have the grip to continue the tackle to make it safe or trip when tackled and injure yourself.
Incorrect technique
Doing the technique wrong can lead to a very painful disaster, for instance in rugby the tackle, if the player learns the wrong technique then they can hurt themselves when they tackle or someone else. They can also do long term damage to themselves as well as a result.
Environmental factors
The environment can have affect on injuries, playing on snow and tripping on ice and breaking your leg for instance is the environments fault. If the injury is outside and has nothing to do with yourself or another player then it is due to natures faults them.
Coaching can have a profound affect on a sportsman, if the coaching is bad then it is more likely to led to a injury due to the coaching. That is why coaches are held in high regard as they need to teach it right so the player cant get hurt from what he has taught them.
Preventive measures
Role of the coach
Equipment and environment
Role of the coach
The coach needs to know every little and up to date detail about the player so they can preventive injuries happening, this may be medical knowledge about the player so they can avoid doing certain activities with them so the don't get injured. This would link to the players age/ability/fitness levels so if they were 76 the coach can avoid doing any major exercises such as bleep test and lifting heavy weights. Their ability in that sport can also effect what the coaches can do with them, if they only know the basics of football then he cant teach them how to do complex set pieces or the technique of how to do a free kick. The coach would need qualifications to prove that they can teach a player this technique so that the player has reassurance that the coach knows what hes teaching them is right. The qualifications shows that the coach has training to do this and is not just some guy off the street coming in bad teaching them. Having the right communication with the players is very important because the right communication means that they can teach them the right thing so they wont get injured, but if the player was half listening then the communication isn't going to work so the player has a higher chance of getting injured.
Equipment and environment
By checking the equipment prior to doing a sport means that you are looking for any breaks or broken bits off the equipment, by doing this you are preventing a injury from happening but if no one did this then a chance of injury is increased as the players aren't really going to check the equipment before hand so someone needs to so they can prevent a injury. Doing risk assessments will help to prevent a injury as you can get rid of all hazards in a safe manner so the players wont get hurt this can also be the weather as you can do a risk assessment to see if playing in the snow for instance is safe to do. Wearing protective equipment will prevent a injury maybe not the actual accident but it will prevent a injury, wearing it will prevent injury as it is there to protect you from harm such as a american footballs helmet it is designed to prevent injury to the head. Using the equipment is the correct way will avoid unnecessary injuries, by not swinging a hockey stick around which could hit someone in the head and cause head trauma or being taught how to use it properly so you don't smack someones shins and potentially break them then this will avoid an accident. So by using the equipment as its meant to then the players can avoid hurting themselves or others around them.
Primary damage response
Primary damage response is when he body sustains a soft tissue injury e.g. sprain, strain or bruise. The body would react wit specific physiological response in order to repair itself. Local trauma causes damage to blood vessels as there is localized bleeding from the damaged blood vessels and surrounding cells can no longer obtain the oxygenated blood which starts to cause cells to die.
Healing response
There are three steps to the healing process are, inflation, proliferation and remodeling.
Inflammation stage: Begins a few minutes after the injury and lasts around 4-6 days. As blood vessels bleed and local chemicals responses causes further vasodilation which increases warmth, redness and pain. Within the inflammatory fluid is proteins which forms fibrin, this helps in the formation of scar tissue as the wound heals
Proliferation Phase: Occurs approximately between 4 and 21 days; during the phase fibroblasts dominate which produce collagen. These tissue fibres which are laid down to improve the structure of the area. However the danger is that the collagen cab be haphazard in its formation and contribute to tough inelastic scar tissue. If the tissue is not properly stressed and remodelled, it has a likelihood of becoming a recurring injury.
Remodelling Phase: This stage could last many weeks after proliferation phase. The strength of the tissue increases at this stage as the collagen joins together. However the new tissue may become stiff and unable to tolerate the demands of sports. It is vital that at this stage the right treatment is administered to minimize effects of scar tissue tighter.
Sprains: Is a injury to a ligament which connects bones to bones.
Grade I: Is a mild sprain, it is over stretching or a slight tearing of the ligaments. A person with a mild sprain usually experiences minimal pain, swelling and little or no loss of functional ability. Bruising is absent or light. The person can usually put weight on the effected joint.
Grade II: Is a moderate sprain, it is partial tearing or rupture and is characterized by bruising, moderate pain and swelling. A person usually has difficulty putting weight on it. X-ray or MRI may be needed.
Grade III: It is a severe sprain and results are a complete tear or rupture of the ligament. Pain, swelling and bruising is severe and patient cant put weight on it. This type of sprain often requires surgery. Increase the risk of an athlete suffering future sprain in that area.
Strains: Is an injury to either a muscle or a tendon, the tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Grade I: This is a mild strain and only some muscle fibres have been damaged. Healing happens two to three weeks after injury.
Grade II: This is a moderate strain , it is more extensive damage to the muscle fibres but the muscles is not completely rupture. Healing happens three to six weeks after injury.
Grade III: This is a severe injury with a complete rupture of the muscle. This typically requires a surgical repair of the muscle and healing is up to three months long.
Clotting mechanism
In any event of a cut or open wound, the blood clotting mechanism is activated. This is where the blood is transformed into a solid state. It is an important part of haemostasis, where blood loss is stopped from a damaged vessel. The damaged vessel wall is covered by platelet and fibrin containing clot to stop bleeding and begin to repair of damaged vessel.
Hematoma or haematoma is localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form with in the tissue. A bruise is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm. Internal bleeding is generally considered to be spreading of blood within the abdominal or skull not within the muscle.
Physiological Responses
Psychological Responses
Anger in sport injuries
A player finding it that they cant continue their chosen sport because of an injury will become angry with themselves, others or the injury itself. A player can be angry towards themselves because they did a bad technique and injured themselves because of it. The player can be angry to others such as Roy Keane getting injured from a player then going out and seeking revenge for it. Usually the anger would go away because of this but on occasions it may not. Finally anger towards the injury could make the injury worse as the player may strain to get back to playing which would aggravate it further.

Anxiety in sports injuries
Anxiety in a chosen sport is normal but when this is heightened by a injury in the sport, this can have a profound affect on the player. As the injury heals the time length can affect the player, this can start psychological affects on the player as they can start to believe that they cant play their sport because of the injury.
Frustration in sports injuries
Frustration is common amongst athletes after long term injuries, they start to become frustrated by the lack of exercise and begin to crave competition. This can be fixed so long as the player doesn't become injured again, but giving them small doses of exercise may give them relief from being frustrated. This would affect the player in the long run even when they are fit and healthy as they would be more rash in challenges as they want to get back into playing, this could result in a injury.
Depression in sports injuries
Depression in sports injuries isn't good, this can lead to constant sadness which wouldn't do well for motivation levels as they would be too down to get back into doing sports. This wouldn't do well for their energy levels either as this links to motivation, if they are not motivated enough then they are not likely to try so would have lower energy levels than normal. Depression can also led to social withdrawal as this would isolate them from contact with other people. If this keeps going then the depression could become clinical which would mean they would need help so they would not harm themselves because of their depression.
Need for motivation and goal setting
Motivation is important in sports injuries as the patient needs to stay motivated so they don't lose heart because of their injury. This works well with goal setting, with this the patient can do goal setting so for example, put goal setting on when to walk when they have suffered a broken leg. Goal setting can help with motivation as it will motivate the patient more as they would have goals to aim for.
Isolation from team mates
Being isolated from team mates isn't good for the patient, whether they are angry , anxious, frustrated or depressed, it can have a profound affect on the patient. It can led to withdrawal from society which would affect the player in social situations or it will led to a affect on the players sporting ability, it can led to them not performing well or in rare instances become better such as a Abebayor.
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