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Nervous System

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by

Dawn Crisologo

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Nervous System

The Nervous System
Coordination, Integration, Control
Functions of Nervous Systems
Sensory input
Integration
Motor output
Cells of the
Nervous System
The Dendrite Song
(sung to the tune of 'Clementine')

Use your dendrites,
Use your dendrites,
To connect throughout your brain.
Take in info, analyze it,
Grow some new ones
Unrestrained.

Axons send out
Neurotransmitters
To the dendrites all around
Across the synapse
Jumps the impulse
New ideas can now abound.

Stimulation
Is what the brain needs
To make dendrites stretch and grow.
New connections
Make us smarter
In what we think and what we know.

Use your dendrites,
Use your dendrites,
To connect throughout your brain
Take in info, analyze it,
Grow some new ones
Unrestrained.
Neuron Organization
Three kinds of neurons
Neural circuits
form from combinations of two or more neuron types
Reflex arc
s are among the simplest neural circuits
Electrical conduction of information
Membrane potential
Resting potential
Action potential /impulse
Threshold level
of -55mV needed to stimulate neurons,
ALL or NONE
principle
Saltatory conduction -
a faster way
depends on fatty
myelin sheaths
impulse jumps from node to node
saves on ATP and increases conduction speed
multiple sclerosis
- demyelination of axons in the CNS
Communication between neurons
Direct transmission via
gap junctions or nexuses
Indirect transmission via
neurotransmitters
in synapses
Diversity of Nervous Systems
Trends in the development of the nervous system
Trends in the development of the vertebrate brain
Organization of the Nervous System
cephalized, centralized
for
integration
and
processing of information
white matter
(axons in the CNS),
gray matter
(cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons)
cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) in central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain
meninges
protect the CNS
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Transmits information
to and from CNS

Components perform
both sensory and motor functions
12 paired cranial nerves
31 paired spinal nerves
ganglia

Motor division
Somatic nervous system
voluntary (signals skeletal muscles)
responds to external stimuli
Autonomic nervous system
involuntary (signals internal environment, smooth and cardiac muscles)
rest and digest
fight or flee
antagonistic functions, cooperate to maintain homeostasis
Parts and functions of the vertebrate brain
Integrating centers in the cerebrum
divided into right and left cerebral hemispheres
with a highly-developed and convoluted
cerebral cortex
lobes with sensory, association, and motor areas
language and speech
(Brocka and Wernicke's area)
emotions
via the
limbic system
(amygdala, hippocampus, olfactory bulb)
memory and learning
(frontal lobe/amygdala, hippocampus)
consciousness
Drugs and the Nervous System
Full transcript