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Egyptian Mummification and Pyramid Timeline

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Xavier Mckenzie

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Egyptian Mummification and Pyramid Timeline

Beginning in 1504, a time where Egyptian women were given a few rights, a female came to power, Hatshepsut. After her husband and step-brother had died, Tuthmosis II, Hatshepsut came to power and led
many
expedit-
ions for
both ter-
ritory and
trade. Pharaoh Tutankhamen has many names, like King Tut
and the King of Bling due to his impressive tomb. Tut was only a boy when he received the title of Horus, the god pharaohs are considered
to be. No
one knows
for sure
when Tut
came to
power but
we do know
it was
between
1355 and
1342 B.C. 3200 B.C. 3000 B.C. 2800 B.C. 2600 B.C. 2400 B.C. 2200 B.C. 2000 B.C. 1800 B.C. 1600 B.C. 1400 B.C. 1200 B.C. 1000 B.C. 800 B.C. 600 B.C. Pre-Dynastic Period 3100 B.C.-2950 B.C. Old Kingdom 2680 B.C.- 2258 B.C. Middle Kingdom 2040 B.C.-1786 B.C. New Kingdom 1570 B.C.-1085 B.C. Ahmose I: Dynasty XVIII Hatshepsut: Dynasty XVIII Amenhotep III: Dynasty XVIII Akhenaten: Dynasty XVIII Tutankhamen: Dynasty XVIII Ramses II: Dynasty XIX Starting the XVIII dynasty, Ahmose I took over after his late brother at the age of ten but his mother became his regent. His family was
always at war with the
Hyksos. He
took the
defensive
side of the
battle and won,
reuniting
Upper and
Lower once
again. Known as "the pharaoh who beautified Egypt," Amenhotep III was the leader of a peace period in Egypt. He refrained from war for he knew that they would effect them not only politically but
economically.
He filled Egypt
with many
structures th-
at still stand
today. Akhenaten was considered one of the worst pharaohs for upsetting the perfect nature of Egyptian ways. Akhenaten led everyone to believe that the primal god, Amon, was a fake and that people should worship in Aten, the only god
besides Re.
He and his
wife built a
new capital
and banned
priests around
Egypt along
with the closi-
ng of sacred
temples. One of the best leaders to have ever ruled Egypt, Ramses II or "Ramses the Great" maintaining a stable reign for over 90 years. It is still a history mystery as to why he even lived that long back then. He was an amazing military leader winning battles left and right. Egyptians cherished his rule by con-
stantly
writing
hieroglyph-
ics about his
accomplish-
ments. The Pyramid of Djoser, also known as the Step Pyramid, was originally designed to be a flat-roofed mastaba.

The architect Imhotep stacked six progressively smaller mastabas one on top of the other as the final resting place for King Djoser. Natural Mummification
c. 3200 B.C. Bodies placed in the hot sand dehydrated because the hot sand absorbed the water in the body Summary The mummy was in his late twenties when he died. He shows no signs of having done manual labor, which is in keeping with his burial at Abydos; he most likely was a member of the social elite. The cause of death remains a mystery, no soft tissue was preserved within his bandages and his skeleton shows no sign of injury or illness.

His linen wrappings, with bandages 6 to 8 inches wide applied in many layers, were probably put on wet, an assumption from the taut manner in which they were wound and the way they conform to what researchers believe was a flesh-covered skeleton. There is evidence that natron salt and resin were used to help dry out the body in a simple artificial mummification process. Organs removed and later preserved in canopic jars
Limbs wrapped separately in linen bandages and covered in plaster, the face was painted green
Embalmers started to use natron to dehydrate the body
Could not preserve the flesh Used in the tomb of Queen Hepetphres. She is believed to be the first to have her organs dried out and preserved Canopic Box
c. 2600B.C.
4th Dynasty Old Kigdom Mummy
c. 2300B.C.
6th Dynasty http://shared.web.emory.edu/emory/news/releases/2011/06/oldest-mummy-to-star-in-carlos-museums-egypts-pyramid-age.html#.T06g7ocge8A Typical Late Kingdom Mummy
c.746-336 B.C. Middle Kigdom Mummy
c. 2000B.C. mummy is one of the earliest to show evidence that embalmers removed the brain through the nose http://www.mfa.org/tomb/mummy.html Brain was almost always removed
Internal organs were washed and dried, painted with resin and wrapped in linen
The body cavity was washed with water followed by palm wine
Body was coated with lots of resin
Body was dried with natron and filled with resin-soaked linen to provide a natural shape and stop insects
Non-royal mummies did not have their brain and internal organs removed but they were well-wrapped Summary Toes wrapped separately.
Internal organs were removed, but the heart remained in place.
Brain removed.
Nose and ears were plugged with resin. Ramses II
1213B.C.
19th Dynasty Wooden coffins were introduced in the First Dynasty (about 3100-2890 BC)

They separated the body from the drying effects of the sand so soft tissue decomposed, leaving only a skeleton Wooden Coffin, from Tarkhan
c. 3000 B.C. Late Kingdom 715 B.C.- 322 B.C. The dead were buried in shallow oval pits, sometimes surrounded by their personal belongings and covered with sand Burial Pit
c. 5000-3100 B.C. http://www.egyptological.com/2012/01/exhibition-spotlight-before-the-pyramids-at-the-oriental-institute-7073 In the beginning of the dynastic period the kings of Egypt started to build a mud-brick superstructure over a rectangular burial pit.

This brick Mastaba was very large, covering an area of 45m by 85m and rising to a height of around 8m. Bet Khallaf Mastaba K 1
c. 2650 B.C. Step Pyramid of Djoser
c. 2780 B.C. Built during the reign of Snefru, founder of the Fourth Dynasty.
The sides of a step pyramid were filled in with stone and covered with lime.
Halfway up the pyramid, the angle was a steep, but then for the top half, the incline was more gradual (only about 43 degrees). Bent Pyramid
c. 2650 B.C. First True Pyramid
Red Pyramid
c. 2600 B.C. Built during the reign of Snefru, not long after the bent pyramid.
Four smooth sides with an angle of 43 degrees. The Great Pyramid
c. 2560 B.C. Built by Snefru's son Khufu
sidies are built at an angle of 51 degrees to a height of 147 meteres
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