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Cold War - Brinkley, Ch. 29

A tense and dangerous rivalry that would exist between th U.S. and the Soviet Union for decades.

John Lukasko

on 10 April 2011

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Transcript of Cold War - Brinkley, Ch. 29

The Cold War A tense and dangerous rivalry that would exist between the U.S. and the Soviet Union for decades. Tension began before WWII had ended. Would divide the world into two "not quite" warring camps. Capitalism Vs. Communism Atomic bomb would become a central weapon. Cold War would transform American politics. Republican party would revise Anti-Communist Frenzy would occur - "McCarthyism" Key historical issue: Who is more to blame for increasing tensions, U.S. or Soviet Union? U.S. Vision: Nations would govern themselves according to principles of democracy with an international governing body. Soviet Vision: Great powers should control areas of strategic interest; "buffer zone in
Eastern Europe. Cassablanca Conference, Jan. 1943 - Allies decide not to launch an immediate invasion of German-Occupied Europe. Tehran Conference, Nov. 1943, Polish Issue un-resolved Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945 - Russia renews pledge to enter Pacific War, United Nations established, Stalin (vaguely) agrees
to allow democratic elections in Poland, Germany divided up into zones of occupation (Berlin as well). Stalin begins to establish pro-Communist governments in E. Europe and
does not implement promised changes in Poland; promises he had made for a
"future date." FDR dies April 12, 1945 Harry S. Truman becomes president and views
Stalin and Soviet Union as unreasonable. "Get Tough Policy" - Truman chastises Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov on April 23. Potsdam Conference, July, 1945 - Truman
concedes on Polish boundaries; Germany
remains divided; U.S. possesses atomic bomb
at this point. The China Problem U.S. decides to support corrupt
nationalist government of Chiang-Kai Shek Nationalist forces will lose to
Communist forces of Mao Zedong U.S. decides that a revived Japan will be the way
to maintain a strong presence in Asia The Containment Doctrine - if communism
is contained, it will collapse; George F. Kennan Truman Doctrine- "It must be the
policy of the United States to support free
peoples resisting subjugation." In response to crisies in Turkey and Greece. Would greatly expand American foreign policy involvement. The Marshall Plan - a proposal to aid in the ecnomic reconstruction of Western Europe. Motives:
Create a strong market for
American goods, and stop the spread of communism. Mobilization at home - 1947-1948 measures put in
place to maintain American military power. Selective service Atomic energy research -
nuclear weaponry a central
place. National Security Act, 1947 - created
Department of Defense and CIA. 1950 - Truman approved the development of the Hydrogen Bomb. Berlin Blockade Stalin Blockades Berlin in
response to Truman requesting
a new W. German Republic U.S. responds with
Berlin Airlift Stalin will lift blockade in Spring of 1949 and
Division of Germany is complete. NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-12 nations in Western Europe sign agreement stating that if one is attacked, all would respond. Soviet Union responds with Warsaw Pact in 1955. NSC-68:
Soviet explosion of Atomic bomb and loss of China
caused the U.S. to take a more active stance. - document stated
that U.S. must move to stop communist expansion wherever it occurred. Called for a major expansion of military power.
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