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Copy of Plant and Animal responses
Transcript of Copy of Plant and Animal responses
Plant and Animal responses
Due to Earth rotating on it's axis
Due to the gravitational pull of the moon (and sun), and orbit of the moon.
Due to the orbit of the moon
Simple, innate, responses to stimuli
External 5 credits
Internal (US): Plant reponses: 3 credits
Internal (US): Animal responses: 3 credits
The stimulus may be:
This is called a:
An organism has adaptations that help it survive in its habitat. The better the adaptations, the more chance of successful reproduction – "survival of the fittest".
Where the organism can live (depends on biotic factors)
Where the organism actually lives (depends on biotic factors, too)
Genetically programmed responses, e.g. timing, simple orientations (taxis/ kinesis/ nastic/ tropisms)
e.g. conditioning, etc
Nocturnal: active at night
Based on astronomical cycles
"circa" = about
Diurnal: active during the day
Crepuscular: active around dawn/dusk
Due to the tilt of the Earth, and orbit of the sun
e.g. flowering, spawning, migration, etc
e.g. pretty much anything tidal.
e.g. molting cycles in insects
Controlled by only external stimuli
Controlled by biological clock BUT is reset by a zeitgeber
The zeitgeber entrains the organism
No zeitgeber (constant environmental conditions) reveals the Free Running Period of the rhythm
Organisms are active at a time consistant with their adaptations, allowing the best reproduction or survival chances.
Using zeitbeger means organism can change timing as the seasons change
Biological clock means that the organism can predict change (tide going out, sunset, etc), e.g. reducing predation
Named after the stimuli that causes the response, e.g:
positive- (towards) or negative- (away)
Responding to intensity
e.g. Female kakapo moving toward a booming male kakapo...
ortho- (change in speed) or klino- (change in rate of turning)
e.g. a water boatman swims faster in areas of little food, and slower when there is more...
e.g. it also turns more in food-rich environments...
The way an animal finds its way from one place to another, includes homing and migration (but not simple orientations).
Returning to a familiar site (often daily)
All innate, but experience improves success
Landmarks (visual cues)
Long distance movement, usually annual
May be return: godwits, blue whales
Might be a part of their life cycle: salmon, monarchs
Requires preparation - feeding, conditioning
Benefits must outweigh the risks - page 58 no. 1
Positive or negative
Controlled by auxin (probably) causing cell elongation or inhibition of elongation:
e.g. a stem grows towards light...
Response to change in stimulus - non-directional
e.g. "sleep" movements in oxalis...
e.g. a venus fly-trap closing...
Results from a sudden change in turgor pressure in some cells:
Circadian - sleep movements, sun tracking
Annual - flowering, germination, abscission (leaf fall)
Page 109 #1, 111#2
Controls response based on length of night (or Critical Day Length)
2 forms; Pr and Pfr
The concentration of the Pr (or Pfr) determines the flowering of the plant; "short day plants" need a long night to flower (need high conc of Pr - or low of Pfr, we don't really know)
Page 113 #3, 4; 114 (1a, 2)
Interactions between species
One benefits (+), another is neither (0), e.g. cattle egrets
Both benefit (+), e.g. finch and tortoise
Page 64 #1a, 2, 3
Page 66 #1a, 1d, 2
Page 69 #2, 3, 4, 5
Exploitation (+, -) where one organism feeds on the other without killing it.
Ectoparasite: free living (e.g. sandfly, vampire bat (?))
Endoparasite: live inside (e.g. tapeworm)
This can require a complex life cycle to ensure host is not wiped out.
Strategies to avoid (or increase) predation:
Camoflage (e.g. stick insect)
Toxin production + warning
- Mullerian (both toxic) or
- Batesian (one's a tricker)
Speed, strength, size, webs, etc
Animal is +, plant is -
Herbivory avoidance mechanisms
Animal is +, plant is +
Plants may coevolve with specific pollinators.
Many animals live in groups. Examples?
- Improving young rearing
- Protection from predation
- Effective migration
- Shared learning
- Breeding success
- Division of labour
- Environmental manipulation
- Shared Feeding
Many Pukekos will not breed as they do not have dominance in the group.
Even so, they help gather food, rear young and protect territory. Why?
e.g. Pukekos, Bonobos
The more time you spend looking after your offspring, the fewer you can have.
This is an energy cost for the parent, and limits the number of offspring but results in improved survival rates.
Hierarchy - a dominance order. A simple linear one is called a pecking order.
Agonistic behaviour (aggression within the species) - threats and submission to establish dominance. Reduces chances of fighting.
Altruistic behaviour is where a member of a group reduces their chance of reproduction in favour of another member of their group.
Bringing gifts, physical stimulation, synchronised movement, visual cues and voice.
ensures that the individuals are the same species
suppresses aggressive behaviour
develops pair bond
ensures readiness for breeding
There must be some sort of survival advantage from doing this.
- Predators attracted
This is called kin selection.
Uses dominant and submissive postures and behaviours to confirm heirarchy.
Page 80a-d, 83 2, 4a-e
e.g. most birds (and people)
Polygyny - 1 male has breeding rights with many females
e.g. Lions, Baboons
Polyandry - 1 female has rights over males
e.g. Bees. This is much less common... Why?
results from selection pressures such as males bigger/stronger to defend territory, or sexual selection
roaming area used to gather resources, may overlap with other groups
Other things to know:
Page 91 1,2,5
Is always negative for all species
Happens when a necessary resource is limited - remember Gause's law?
Auxin does the opposite thing in stems and roots!
An environment is all the factors that affect an organism (biotic and abiotic).
A habitat is a zone with a certain range of factors, such as a savannah.
... positive photo tropism
(btw - limpets graze, barnacles filter-feed)