Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Copy of Plant and Animal responses

For Biology 3.3
by

A Turner

on 2 December 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of Plant and Animal responses

External fertilization (usually response to environmental cues) e.g. fish
Monogamy
Plant and Animal responses
Taxis
Tropisms
Movements
Circalunar
Circatidal
Circadian
Abiotic factors
Niche
Due to Earth rotating on it's axis
3 types:
Due to the gravitational pull of the moon (and sun), and orbit of the moon.
Due to the orbit of the moon
Directional movement
Directional growth
Simple, innate, responses to stimuli
External 5 credits
Light
Water
Wind
Humidity
Nutrients
Gravity
Temperature
Internal (US): Plant reponses: 3 credits
Internal (US): Animal responses: 3 credits

Competition
Cooperation
Aggression
Reproduction
Competition
Exploitation
Mutualism
Commensalism
The stimulus may be:
Light
Water
Gravity
Chemicals
Touch
Temperature
This is called a:
An organism has adaptations that help it survive in its habitat. The better the adaptations, the more chance of successful reproduction – "survival of the fittest".
Fundamental niche
Where the organism can live (depends on biotic factors)
Realised niche
Where the organism actually lives (depends on biotic factors, too)
Biotic factors
Intraspecific
Interspecific
Timing
Orientation
Innate
Genetically programmed responses, e.g. timing, simple orientations (taxis/ kinesis/ nastic/ tropisms)
Learned
e.g. conditioning, etc
Nocturnal: active at night
Based on astronomical cycles
"circa" = about

Diurnal: active during the day
Crepuscular: active around dawn/dusk
Circannual
Due to the tilt of the Earth, and orbit of the sun
e.g. flowering, spawning, migration, etc
e.g. pretty much anything tidal.
e.g. molting cycles in insects
Page 40-42
Exogenous
Controlled by only external stimuli
Endogenous
Controlled by biological clock BUT is reset by a zeitgeber
The zeitgeber entrains the organism
No zeitgeber (constant environmental conditions) reveals the Free Running Period of the rhythm
Page 44-46
Adaptive significance
Organisms are active at a time consistant with their adaptations, allowing the best reproduction or survival chances.
Using zeitbeger means organism can change timing as the seasons change
Biological clock means that the organism can predict change (tide going out, sunset, etc), e.g. reducing predation
Page 47-49
Named after the stimuli that causes the response, e.g:
Photo
Hydro
Gravi/Geo
Chemo
Thigmo
Thermo
Kinesis
positive- (towards) or negative- (away)
Page 50-51
Non-directional movement
Responding to intensity
e.g. Female kakapo moving toward a booming male kakapo...
...positive audiotaxis
ortho- (change in speed) or klino- (change in rate of turning)
e.g. a water boatman swims faster in areas of little food, and slower when there is more...
...chemo orthokinesis
e.g. it also turns more in food-rich environments...
...chemo klinokinesis
Page 52
Navigation
Homing
The way an animal finds its way from one place to another, includes homing and migration (but not simple orientations).
Returning to a familiar site (often daily)
All innate, but experience improves success
Methods:
Landmarks (visual cues)
Magnetic compass
Solar compass
Stellar compass
Chemical
Page 56-57
Migration
Migration
Long distance movement, usually annual
May be return: godwits, blue whales
Might be a part of their life cycle: salmon, monarchs
Requires preparation - feeding, conditioning
Benefits must outweigh the risks - page 58 no. 1
Page 58-60
Positive or negative
Page 103-104
Controlled by auxin (probably) causing cell elongation or inhibition of elongation:
e.g. a stem grows towards light...
Page 105-7
Nastic movements
Fast, reversible
Response to change in stimulus - non-directional
e.g. "sleep" movements in oxalis...
...photonasty
e.g. a venus fly-trap closing...
...thigmonasty
Results from a sudden change in turgor pressure in some cells:
Page 107-9
Plant timing
Circadian - sleep movements, sun tracking
Annual - flowering, germination, abscission (leaf fall)
Page 109 #1, 111#2
Photoperiodism
Controls response based on length of night (or Critical Day Length)
Phytochrome system:
2 forms; Pr and Pfr
The concentration of the Pr (or Pfr) determines the flowering of the plant; "short day plants" need a long night to flower (need high conc of Pr - or low of Pfr, we don't really know)
Page 113 #3, 4; 114 (1a, 2)
Commensalism
Interactions between species
One benefits (+), another is neither (0), e.g. cattle egrets
Mutualism
Both benefit (+), e.g. finch and tortoise
Page 64 #1a, 2, 3
Parasitism
Predation
Page 66 #1a, 1d, 2
Page 69 #2, 3, 4, 5
Herbivory
Pollination
Page 71-75
Exploitation (+, -) where one organism feeds on the other without killing it.
Ectoparasite: free living (e.g. sandfly, vampire bat (?))
Endoparasite: live inside (e.g. tapeworm)
This can require a complex life cycle to ensure host is not wiped out.
Exploitation (+,-)
Strategies to avoid (or increase) predation:
Camoflage (e.g. stick insect)
Toxin production + warning
Cooperation
Mimicry
- Mullerian (both toxic) or
- Batesian (one's a tricker)
Speed, strength, size, webs, etc
Animal is +, plant is -
Herbivory avoidance mechanisms
Unpallatablility
Thorns
Habit
Animal is +, plant is +
Plants may coevolve with specific pollinators.
Learning
Interspecific
Intraspecific
Courtship
Groups
Many animals live in groups. Examples?
Advantages:
- Improving young rearing
- Protection from predation
- Effective migration
- Shared learning
- Breeding success
- Division of labour
- Environmental manipulation
- Shared Feeding
Many Pukekos will not breed as they do not have dominance in the group.
Even so, they help gather food, rear young and protect territory. Why?
e.g. Pukekos, Bonobos
The more time you spend looking after your offspring, the fewer you can have.
This is an energy cost for the parent, and limits the number of offspring but results in improved survival rates.
Hierarchy - a dominance order. A simple linear one is called a pecking order.
Agonistic behaviour (aggression within the species) - threats and submission to establish dominance. Reduces chances of fighting.
Territory
Altruistic behaviour is where a member of a group reduces their chance of reproduction in favour of another member of their group.
Sexual dimorphism
Competition
Mating
Competition
Bringing gifts, physical stimulation, synchronised movement, visual cues and voice.
Why?
ensures that the individuals are the same species
suppresses aggressive behaviour
develops pair bond
ensures readiness for breeding
There must be some sort of survival advantage from doing this.
Disadvantages:
- Disease
- Competition
- Predators attracted
This is called kin selection.
Uses dominant and submissive postures and behaviours to confirm heirarchy.
Page 77-79
Page 80a-d, 83 2, 4a-e
Parental care
e.g. most birds (and people)
Polygamy
Polygyny - 1 male has breeding rights with many females
e.g. Lions, Baboons
Polyandry - 1 female has rights over males
e.g. Bees. This is much less common... Why?  
Polygynandry
results from selection pressures such as males bigger/stronger to defend territory, or sexual selection
roaming area used to gather resources, may overlap with other groups
Home range
defended area
Other things to know:
Page 91 1,2,5
Is always negative for all species
Happens when a necessary resource is limited - remember Gause's law?
Auxin does the opposite thing in stems and roots!
An environment is all the factors that affect an organism (biotic and abiotic).
A habitat is a zone with a certain range of factors, such as a savannah.
Environment
Adaptations
... positive photo tropism
(btw - limpets graze, barnacles filter-feed)
Full transcript