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The Black Plague

By Inaara, Nelson, Nikki, and Sam Sands 3rd
by

Nelson Greyson

on 16 February 2013

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Transcript of The Black Plague

The Black Plague Causes Ramifications Contemporaries Lets Get Started Timeline of Significant Dates Any Questions? To live is the rarest thing. Most people exist, that is all.
-Oscar Wilde THANK YOU 1313: Giovanni Boccaccio is born

1337: The Hundred Years' War begins (England V. France)

1345- 1346: Mongols siege Kaffa which is a town near the Crimean Peninsula.
Attackers catapulted the plague infected bodies

1347: The Black Death arrives in Constantinople, Egypt, Sicily, and Italy

1349: The Black Death spreads the Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, and Scandinavia

1350: An English war fleet defeats a Spanish fleet near Winchelsea
Commanded by King Edward III around South England Coast

1361: Outbreak of the plague strikes parts of Europe 1367: Pope Urban V moves the papacy's residence from France back to Rome

1385: Portugal is independent from Spain

1405-1406: England suffers from major outbreak from plague

1431: Joan of Arc is burned and killed in charge of hearsay
During the Hundred Years' War

1664: An unexpected outbreak of the black plague occurs in London
70, 000 people killed

1776: Thirteen Colonies declare independence from the England.

1894: (Swiss scientist) Alexandre Yersin identifies the germ that causes the disease
Outbreak occurs in China

1900-1904: San Francisco, Pennsylvania receives the blows of the plague
121 people killed Historical Anthropological and Sociological Theological and Philosophical Phenomenological and Psychological Bubonic plague-> TODAY OVERVIEW TECHNOLOGICAL
Medical Advances:
Under lock and key: antibiotics
Dr. Johannes Krause of the University of Tubingen (Germany):
East Smithfield Cemetery in London
Sequence genome by extracting DNA from five teeth of plague victims
97 differences among 4.6 billion DNA bases
Published in DISCOVER
Top 100 Stories of 2011
Attacked "frail" people
Those who had lower leg wounds were twice as likely to be infected
Education
Killed monks, scholars, etc.
Destroyed sources to intellect
Stage for intellectual inquiry was destroyed POLITICAL
"10 Year Freeze"
In a time of economic conquest, political leaders were unable to expand with a decreasing population
No one to fight wars
Leads itself to the discussion of universal healthcare TODAY
Spread nationalism MILITARY
Warfare
Catapulting infected bodies
Political instability-> platform for battles ECONOMIC
Agriculture
Lack of adequate means to get food
Crops "withered"
Wheat failures
Famine
Fields going untended
Labor
Choose high paying jobs
No source of labor
Low prices
No way to get money
Because no one worked
Few goods being produced GEOGRAPHICAL DEMOGRAPHICS
Statistics
50 million people killed
1347-1350
50% died
30%-50% of European population killed in first 5 years
1346-1353: Killed 1/3 of the population in Europe
Overall mortality: 200 million deaths Catholic Church:
-Massive losses in population= less clergy members because of death
- Training standards lowered-> differences in the religious dogmas
-Directly lead to the Protestant Reformation The Plague Resulted from Silk Route
-Trade route that led to increased interactions
Origination: Near China/ Mongolian area
-Traders came to Europe on trips
-Stowaway rats on the voyage-> carried fleas-> Y. pestis
-Cargo ships
-Trade was a key factor to the spread the plague
Weather
-"The climate was beginning to dip. It got very cold, very wet, very quickly."
(**Hendrik Poinar- geneticist; McMaster University in Ontario, Canada)
-Correct representation of the DARK AGES
-Lives up to its name of the BLACK PLAGUE
-Less food=more rain= less nourishment
-Crowded cities< host rats and fleas
Extreme extenuating situations
Warfare
-Hundred Years' War
-Conquest battles Known as the "Black Plague"
-Proper name= "Bubonic" plague
-Disease caused the buboes to swell near death time
- "Black Plague" name= coined for several reasons
1. Block splotches
2. Metaphoric comparison
*"Black" metaphor for "terrible"
*Killed 9/10 of China's population
*1/3 of Europe's population
*130 million died in two years SETTING UP THE PLATFORM Samuel Cohn- historian from the Unviersity of Glasgow in Scotland
"A disease is a relationship between a pathogen and its host, and that relationship changes over time." Society crumbled
-People abandoned friends, family and neighbors
-Parents even left their children
-Mass graves became the norm
1. There wasn't enough people to bury the bodies
2. Those left alive were too afraid to touch them Abstracts Black as its Name
By Nikki Young

The black death was an incredibly important factor in world history. In Black Death by George Childs Kohn, the black plague is shown to have originated in Central Asia around 15 years before reaching Constantinople and spreading around Europe. Symptoms included swelling in the armpits and groin, black splotches on the skin, and high fevers. Kohn states that as much as one- to three-fourths of Europe and Asia’s populations may have died from it. Many explanations were given for the plague, including tainted water and the alignment of planets. Some cities attempted to quarantine the sick, but were often unsuccessful. The dead outnumbered the living in many places, causing labor shortages. The plague wiped out Europe’s civilization, allowing them to rebuild into the modern era. Chaos
- No one to enforce law and order
People were living in fear of one another
- Collapse of social structures
- Existence
- Survival for food Significance of Black Death
By: Inaara Shiraz

The objective of this PBL project for the Black Plague group was to defend the claim that the Black Plague was the most significant event that occurred during the post-classical era from 600-1450 CE. As stated in the article The Black Death: A Plague That Brought Change In Europe from Gale Cenage Learning, the Black Plague was an event that reverberated its impacts throughout society during the post-classical era. With the plague spreading through the European population, it left no stone unturned leaving its mark behind. With the labor force dying, the wages for jobs increased as finding workers increased in difficulty. The Black Death was worsened with the weather conditions as agriculture came to a full stop. With no labor force, deteriorating weather, and the famine growing, food prices sunk and there was now a great quantity of food left to feed a once overpopulated region. In these times of great hardship, the internal questioning of the survivors opened the platform up for intellectual advancements. Enhancing the stage for sociological reforms, the European society now received the stage for expansions in the fields of art, religion, and intellect. Death and Punishment given in a new LIGHT
-Word dark was coined during the mid 16 century-Implies death and disease as punishment Transmission and Symptoms Black Death-> International impact Transmitted by fleas carried on rats
-Bacterium Yersinia pestis
-Injected into the rats' blood
Three forms of the disease
-Bubonic
1. Most common
2. Involved swelling of the lymph nodes (buboes)
3. Eventually the name "bubonic" was used for all three
-Pneumonic
1. Least deadly
2. Caused coughing and often fever
-Septicemic
1. Most dramatic and deadly
2. Large numbers of bacteria clog the bloodstream
*Caused hemorrhaging
*This is how the black splotches were formed
3. Victims usually died within three days Repercussions of the Black Plague
By: Sam Miyashita
The Black Plague is the most significant event in history, not because of what it attributed, but what it took away. What it took was one third to one half of the entire population of Europe. However it is God alone that knows the exact number because the records were kept so scarcely then and the amount of dead was simply too great. According to Sharpe Online Reference, the epidemic lasted for about 300 years and in this time many things changed including how the church was run. Due to the massive population decreases, the amount of clergy was dramatically reduced, so to compensate the standards of training were lowered and this eventually led to reforms in the church which directly led to the Protestant Reformation in 1517. This is solely due to the loss of people, including clergy. CULTURAL:
Languages:
- Greek, Latin, and French widely spoken languages
- Death of scholars and teachers
Native languages now spoken
Nationalism
Decrease in teachers= decrease in students
Colleges closed
Marked increase in local learning
Books in native language increased
Public readings for entertainment LITERATURE:
-Writers; Authors; Artists
Lost "optimism"
Wrote about death
Continuous enforcement
Common element
Danse macabre
"Dance of death" Historical Anthropological and Sociological Theological and Philosophical Phenomenological and Psychological In September of 2012, a seven year old girl that was camping with her family in California contracted the plague.
She contracted the plague when she was around a dead squirrel that she wanted to bury that was near her family's campsite.
She had her sweatshirt lying on the ground near the squirrel that she later tied around her waist, in the same place the doctors noticed insect bites that may have introduced the disease to her.
Had a fever of 107.
She was taken to the hospital where she was treated and she made a full recovery!
She may well have died from one to two days after she contracted the disease, had she not gone to the hospital and received antibiotics Skit Statistical Evidence
Nelson Bohanon

The purpose of this project is to prove the that the Black Plague is single handily the most important event of its time period. The Black Plague was single handily the most devastating Pandemic off all time. The Magnitude of the chaos is caused, was so great that it wiped out over 40 percent of Europe’s population. In recent years people make a deal about swine flu, and West Nile virus, who haven’t even effected .5% of the Nation’s population. If anyone could imagine the Inclination of what the black plague did to Europe was disastrous. If the word Epidemic, or even the century of the 1300s if even spoken, the first thing that should be thought of is The Black Plague, and the significance of the impact that it caused to the World.
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