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Transcript of Vietnam war
-Second Indochina War
-Resistance War Against America
From 1 November 1955 to the 30 April 1975
Occurred in Vietnam, Laos
History of the country
-13th most populous country
-Became independent from Imperial
China in 938.
- Colonized by the French in the
-Vietnamese fought French rule in
First Indochina War
Kingdom of Laos
-Temperatures vary between
21 and 28 °C.
-Rainfall is abundant, with
annual rainfall exceeding 1000mm almost everywhere.
Capital : Hanoi
Official language : Vietnamese
Government : Marxist-Leninist single-party state
GDP : $187.848 billion (54th)
Currency : đong
Life expectancy : 75,61 years old
85.7% Kinh (Viet)
1.4% Kho me
-Mostly hilly and densely forested
-Land covering 20%, mountains account
for 40%, tropical forests cover around 42%.
The beginning of the war
France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850's
: Japan invaded Indochina because Germany took control and let the power to Japan
The Viet Minh common front
: league for independence from France and Japanese occupation in 1945
the French colonial authorities collaborated with the Japanese.
: U.S.A. and Chinese Nationalist Party
During 1944–1945 :
deep famine struck northern Vietnam due to a bad weather and French/Japanese exploitation
: Viet Minh and other nationalist groups took over public buildings and weapons. They declared the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Viet Minh began a guerrilla war against the French
First Indochina War : 19 December 1946 and lasted until 1 August 1954
Viet Minh victory :
-Vietnam is partitioned between North (controlled by the Viet Minh) and South (controlled by the State of Vietnam)
-Departure of the French from Indochina
-State of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia gain official independence
Before the independance
After the independance
: tried to stop the
cummunism in North Vietnam.
In the 50's
: China and USSR are the biggest cummunist leaders, which represent a threat for U.S.A. because of : the important military potentiel of these countries, their huge population and the USSR's atomic bomb.
Beginning of the Vietnam War
-Phan Xi Păng, highest mountain in Vietnam (3,143 m high).
- Almost the size of Germany.
Guerilla warfare :
-Small units fight limited battles against the enemy
-Set up ambushes
-Make surprise attacks against the enemies' camps
-Retreat back into the countryside
-Doing sabotage and harassing the enemy
Atrocities during the war
•In battles at Ia Drang (23 October to 20 November 1965), NVA troops slaughtered U.S. wounded. Most bodies recovered were shot in the head or back. At other locations, wounded American soldiers were tied to trees, tortured, and then murdered.
•On 6 December 1967, Viet Cong massacred 252 civilians in a vengeance attack on Dak Son, an anti-communist Montagnard village
•During the 1968 Tet offensive, the North Vietnamese massacred 5,800 civilians at Hue
•Terrorism was an integral part of Communist strategy in Vietnam; terrorist attacks, killing innocent women and children.
•Treatment of prisoners in Communist camps included routine brutality along with torture and psychological abuse
A lot of massacres
The mediatization of the conflict affected the american
opinion on this war. Photos of the massacres are shocking the public.
Phan Thị Kim Phúc,
running naked on a road after being severely burned on her back by a South Vietnamese attack.
-U.S.A. used chemical defoliants between 1961 and 1971. They were used to prevent the Viet Cong from being able to hide their weapons and encampments under the foliage.
-These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain.
-About 45,000,000 L of Agent Orange were sprayed over Southeast Asia.
In the end
-Hundreds of thousands of children were left orphans
-Bombs in Vietnam let basic infrastructure in the North devastated
-Children in Vietnam growing up with various diseases and disabilities affected by the Agent Orange
-Vietnam remains a developing country under the Communist government
- This war affected the economy of the U.S.A. whom spent around 300 to 900 billon.
-Around 700,000 Vietnam veterans suffered psychological after-effects
-North Vietnamese victory
-Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina
-Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
-South Vietnam is annexed by North Vietnam
North Vietnamese victory Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina
Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos
South Vietnam is annexed by North Vietnam
Unification of North and South Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Viet Minh like Ho Chi Minh
hoped Vietnam would become
September 1945, Declaration of Independance
He wanted to confiscate lands from the rich and divide it between the farmers
Age structure 2014:
0-14 years: 24.3%
(male 11,946,656/female 10,800,602)
15-24 years: 17.8%
(male 8,598,360/female 8,023,377)
25-54 years: 44.8%
(male 20,983,638/female 20,861,243)
55-64 years: 7.4%
(male 3,149,494/female 3,763,309)
65 years and over: 5.7%
(male 2,034,721/female 3,260,435)