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GROUNDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING IN GOOD THINKING

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tania santiago

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Transcript of GROUNDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING IN GOOD THINKING





Presented by Tania Santiago Maria Jesús Francisco
English Teachers COAS AYALDE
Vizcaya- Basque Country

National Center for Teaching Thinking, info@nctt.net www.nctt.net

BRITISH COUNCIL
September, 2012 GROUNDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING IN GOOD THINKING We See In Many Classrooms Now a Shift from
TEACHER-Centered Classrooms
in which students are primarily passive learners
to
STUDENT-Centered Classrooms
in which students are primarily active learners Three Cornerstones of New
21st Century Classrooms:
Thinking
Communication
Collaboration
21st Century classrooms emphasize helping students develop competency in each of these for use in their lives outside of school. Three Characteristics of
20st Century Classrooms:
Passive Reception of Information
Talking and Writing for the
Teacher
Individual Learning & Competition
20th Century classrooms emphasize teaching individual students to recall information that they give back on tests in order to get high grades. How can we get thinking into classrooms so that students learn how to do it better? Three Cornerstones of New
21st Century Classrooms:
Thinking

Communication

Collaboration
WHY TEACH THINKING?
WHY TEACH THINKING?
WHY TEACH THINKING?
WHY TEACH THINKING? Eat a bowl of Honey Smacks a
day and everyone will admire
your strong body and perfect
health! Honey Smacks has more
vitamins than any other cereal.
And you get a prize that no other
cereal can beat. Buy Honey
Smacks for your whole family the
next time you go shopping. many aspects to take into consideration advertisements Eat a bowl of Honey Smacks a
day and everyone will admire
your strong body and perfect
health! Honey Smacks has more
vitamins than any other cereal.
And you get a prize that no other
cereal can beat. Buy Honey
Smacks for your whole family the
next time you go shopping.
While everyone thinks not everyone thinks as carefully and well as they could. What You Are Thinking About Thinking Attention What You
Are Thinking
About Attention Thinking

To Teach Students to Think Skillfully We Need To Shift Their Attention Onto Their Own Thinking THINKING SKILLS Problem Solve
Rank
Sequence
Support
Synthesize
Represent
Visualize
Reason
Validate
Verify
Summarize Diagram
Evaluate
Generalize
Identify
Interpret
Judge
Observe
Organize
Paraphrase
Predict Analyze
Classify
Compare
Contrast
Create
Describe
Elaborate
Explore
Find the Cause
Compose
Decide but THESE ARE NOT ARE
THINKING SKILLS!


WHAT IS A THINKING SKILL?

A thinking skill = engaging in a type of thinking skillfully. what is a thinking skill? WHAT KINDS OF THINKING SHOULD WE TEACH STUDENTS TO ENGAGE IN SKILLFULLY? AND CAN WE ORGANIZE THE LIST BETTER? II. CLARIFYING IDEAS
1. Analyzing Ideas
A. Compare/ Contrast
B. Classification/Definition
C. Parts/Whole
D. Sequencing
2. Analyzing Arguments
A. Finding Reasons/Conclusions
B. Uncovering Assumptions IMPORTANT TYPES OF THINKING THAT WE SHOULD TEACH STUDENTS TO ENGAGE IN SKILLFULLY I. GENERATING IDEAS
1. Alternative Possibilities
A. Multiplicity of Ideas
B. Varied Ideas
C. New Ideas
D. Detailed Ideas
2.Composition
A. Analogy/Metaphor III. ASSESSING THE REASONABLENESS OF IDEAS
1. Assessing Basic Information
Reliability of Sources/Accuracy of Observation
2. Inference
A. Use of Evidence
Casual Explanation/Prediction
Generalization
Reasoning by Analogy
B. Deduction
Conditional Reasoning (If…then…)
Categorical Reasoning (Some…All…)

IV. COMPLEX THINKING TASKS
1. Decision Making
2. Problem Solving


WHAT IS A THINKING SKILL?

A thinking skill = engaging in a type of thinking skillfully.

What does this mean? Engaging in a type of thinking skillfully can be operationalized
by developing questioning strategies that can be taught to students. Where is the Best Place to Teach Thinking Skills in a School Curriculum?
INFUSING SKILLFUL THINKING INTO CONTENT INSTRUCTION

1. Enhances content learning by engaging students in thinking in deep and rich ways about the content they are learning

2. Enhances the quality of their lives outside of school by prompting them to exercise skillful thinking about life issues.


An Infusion Lesson decision making

Let’s think about questions that can prompt us to engage in this specific kind of thinking. Decision Making

What should I do?

BUT THIS IS WHAT WE ALL ASK. WHAT SHOULD WE ASK AND ANSWER BEFORE WE MAKE OUR DECISIONS?

Let’s think about questions that can prompt us to engage in this specific kind of thinking with care and skill. Eat a bowl of Honey Smacks a
day and everyone will admire
your strong body and perfect
health! Honey Smacks has more
vitamins than any other cereal.
And you get a prize that no other
cereal can beat. Buy Honey
Smacks for your whole family the
next time you go shopping. Let’s Think

What questions would you want to answer before you bought either this car or this breakfast cereal? SKILLFUL DECISION MAKING

What makes a decision necessary?
What are my options?
What are the likely consequences of each option?
How important are the consequences?
Which option is best in light of the consequences? ADVERSTISEMENTS
ENERGY Are any alternative energy sources better that petroleum for our country to be able to rely on them as our dominant energy source? OPTIONS AND FACTOR TO CONSIDER
IN SKILLFUL DECISION MAKING
OPTIONS FACTORS TO CONSIDER what factors about each of these Options should we consider in deciding which option is best for our country? RELEVANT CONSEQUENCES RELEVANT CONSEQUENCES ?????? Safety Cost Accesibility Abundance Hydro-
Electric Wind Nuclear Solar “Let’s form groups of two students who disagree.
Listen to each other carefully and be open-minded. Explain why your choice is best. Maybe your partner has found something that you missed. It’s ok to change your mind.” COMMUNICATING THINKING IN WRITING Now write a report to the government recommending your option and explaining why.
Show them that you have thought as carefully as anyone can about this issue. Finally:
Prompting the students to guide their own thinking. Let’s Think About Our Thinking

What kind of thinking did we just do?

How did we do this kind of thinking?

Was this a good way to do it? Why?

How would you do it next time it is
called for? TEACHING SKILLFUL THINKING DIRECTLY:
1. Make explicit what makes the thinking skillful
2. Give students guided practice in doing the thinking skillfully.
3. Prompt the students to guide themselves to do the thinking skillfully when it is called for. Asked students what kind of thinking they did and how they did it.
Prompted students to evaluate the effectiveness of doing this kind of thinking this way.
Asked students to plan how they would do the kind of thinking next time. Gave students interesting raw material to think about.
Organized group work with specific thinking tasks
Asked specific questions guided by the thinking
strategy.
Gave the students a graphic organizer to organize
their thinking.
Asked open-ended questions
Gave students time to think.
Asked extending questions when students responded
Prompted the groups to share their thinking.
Repeated what the students said to sum up their
comments
Gave positive reinforcement to the thinking.
Accepted everything that the students said. Gave the students a familiar object to model the
thinking being taught.
Prompted students to identify important questions to
ask to do the kind of thinking skillfully
Made the thinking strategy explicit in writing.
Asked open-ended questions
Gave students time to think.
Asked extending questions when students responded
Repeated what the students said to sum up their
comments
Gave positive reinforcement to the thinking.
Accepted everything that the students said. 3. Prompt students to think about their thinking 2. Engage students in doing this kind of thinking skillfully 1. Make explicit what makes this kind of thinking skillful TEACHING TECHNIQUES IN INFUSION LESSONS: Let’s see how skillful decision making can be introduced in middle-school language arts.
One way is to go back to where students encounter decisions in this subject area – in the study of literature. Here’s one example. SHILOH SKILLFUL DECISION MAKING

What makes a decision necessary?
What are my options?
What are the likely consequences of each option?
How important are the consequences?
Which option is best in light of the consequences? HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?

Was this a gifted student?

Did his mother write this? This has tremendous potential for enhanced learning!
Here’s an example from secondary History. Now Let’s Translate our Good Thinking into Good Writing: Write a letter to President Truman to convince him that your option is best. Do this by showing him that you have thought as carefully as anyone can about this issue. August 1, 1945
Dear President Truman,
I understand that you must make a decision about how to end the war. From the information I have, you have five basic options. You may use the atomic bomb on a strategic military city, demonstrate the bomb, invade Japan, continue conventional bombing, or negotiating peace. I am going to lay out the consequences of each option to assist your decision.

Recently, you have been given information about a top secret weapon the atomic bomb. From the test at Los Alamos we understand that this weapon could devastate an entire city. This fact in itself should be given heavy consideration. An entire city will be reduced to nothing. Any people or buildings within a certain radius of the bomb will disappear. This not only includes military weapons and personnel, but it also contains civilians who work and live in the targeted city and the buildings which they inhabit. This total destruction must be discussed further before making this sort of decision. On the other hand, our secret weapon may save millions of American and Japanese lives in the long run. Right now, many soldiers are dying on behalf of both countries due to conventional fighting tactics. Therefore, the atomic bomb could put a quick end to the war, saving many military casualties.

However, most of the scientists I have corresponded with have made it very clear that they do not think we should use the bomb against a populated city at this point. They suggest that a demonstration of the bomb be given the Japanese. In this way, the Japanese will witness the power that the United States possesses. This may intimidate them enough to surrender and end the war and save lives. Yet, they may not surrender even if a demonstration is given. Or perhaps, the demonstration may not work properly. There is a lot of uncertainty about this. Nevertheless, a demonstration of the bomb will reduce some of the guilt that the United States will have to face if it is necessary to use the bomb on a military target.

Previously, the Untied States had been planning to invade Japan with two million soldiers. We estimate over a million casualties on both sides as a result of this invasion. These numbers do seen plausible because of the reports we have received regarding casualties from recent attacks. The negatives seem to far outweigh the positives in this alternative. Besides loss of life, we could lose the battle. In addition, this invasion may not end the war quickly. If the war is prolonged, it will cost the U.S. more money. More men may be drafted in order to revive the force from losses. All of these factors may also cause you to lose favor with the American people and therefore lose the next election. On the other hand there is a slim chance that we may win the war quickly by invading. The Allies may join in. We may then be able to spare many civilian lives and keep the atomic bomb as our “secret” weapon.

While an invasion may have drawbacks, continuing conventional bombing seems to incur just as many. First this process is costing us many American lives and dollars. Also, there is no guarantee that the Japanese will surrender anytime soon. We are receiving reports that the Japanese soldiers will fight until all of them are dead. On the other hand, we have also received reports which tell us that the commanders are talking about a way to negotiate an end to the war through Stalin as a mediator. If this is the case, we nee to consider carefully the last option – negotiate peace.

The final choice is my recommendation to you. I suggest that the Untied States try to negotiate peace with the Japanese at this stage in the war. We may gain a resolution to end the war quickly. Leading Japanese intellectuals support negotiations. Also, we know that the Japanese military wanted to negotiate an end if they were to win the Marianas. Knowing that the Japanese leaders also consider surrendering under conditional terms, we may be able to achieve peace quite easily through compromise.

Yet there are people who believe that Japan will never surrender, due to their immense sense of national pride. In addition, Mr. Stimson believes that the United States should not change its position about Japan’s unconditional surrender. He thinks that if the Japanese do not surrender unconditionally, then they will rise up and begin another war. He does not want to see the Japanese repeat what the Germans did in World War I and World War II.There is also the fear that if we begin negotiations with Japan, the talks may take too long or that nothing will be decided from the talks. Finally, there is the danger that the Japanese may have time to become stronger during these peace talks.

Nevertheless, it is my earnest opinion that peace arbitration is the best choice for you to make at this time. It is in the United States’ best interest to in the war quickly. We may not have to concede anything very serious that could leave Japan still a threat; there is some indication that the Japanese will surrender if they can retain their emperor. If the Japanese stall, on the other hand, to rebuild their armed forces, we must remember that we still have the atomic bomb. We should then consider more seriously either demonstrating the weapon or using it on a city. We have little to lose and much to gain if we give peace talks a chance.

Sincerely,
Rebecca Price Dear President Truman,

I understand that you must make a decision about how to end the war. From the information I have, you have five basic options. You may use the atomic bomb on a strategic military city, demonstrate the bomb, invade Japan, continue conventional bombing, or negotiating peace. I am going to lay out the consequences of each option to assist your decision………….

The final choice is my recommendation to you. I suggest that the Untied States try to negotiate peace with the Japanese at this stage in the war. We may gain a resolution to end the war quickly. Leading Japanese intellectuals support negotiations. Also, we know that the Japanese military wanted to negotiate an end if they were to win the Marianas. Knowing that the Japanese leaders also consider surrendering under conditional terms, we may be able to achieve peace quite easily through compromise.

Yet there are people who believe that Japan will never surrender, due to their immense sense of national pride. In addition, Mr. Stimson believes that the United States should not change its position about Japan’s unconditional surrender. ……....

Nevertheless, it is my earnest opinion that peace arbitration is the best choice for you to make at this time. It is in the United States’ best interest to in the war quickly. We may not have to concede anything very serious that could leave Japan still a threat; there is some indication that the Japanese will surrender if they can retain their emperor. If the Japanese stall, on the other hand, to rebuild their armed forces, we must remember that we still have the atomic bomb. We should then consider more seriously either demonstrating the weapon or using it on a city. We have little to lose and much to gain if we give peace talks a chance.
Sincerely,
Rebecca Price Deep careful thinking guided by the use of a thinking strategy map

A planned organized transition from thinking to writing using a writing map

Implementation of the Writing Process from first draft to final draft 3 KEYS TO GOOD WRITING We Can Even Start Very Young Children On Skillful Decision Making
Choosing

What are some things I can do?

What will happen if I do these things?

Which are good things to do? what are his options? what can Horton do?
LET’S LOOK AT ANOTHER TYPE OF THINKING THAT HELPS STUDENTS TO UNDERSTAND THINGS BETTER III. ASSESSING THE REASONABLENESS OF IDEAS
1. Assessing Basic Information
Reliability of Sources/Accuracy of Observation
2. Inference
A. Use of Evidence
Casual Explanation/Prediction
Generalization
Reasoning by Analogy
B. Deduction
Conditional Reasoning (If…then…)
Categorical Reasoning (Some…All…)

IV. COMPLEX THINKING TASKS
1. Decision Making
2. Problem Solving II. CLARIFYING IDEAS
1. Analyzing Ideas
A. Compare/ Contrast
B. Classification/Definition
C. Parts/Whole
D. Sequencing
2. Analyzing Arguments
A. Finding Reasons/Conclusions
B. Uncovering Assumptions IMPORTANT TYPES OF THINKING THAT WE SHOULD TEACH STUDENTS TO ENGAGE IN SKILLFULLY I. GENERATING IDEAS
1. Alternative Possibilities
A. Multiplicity of Ideas
B. Varied Ideas
C. New Ideas
D. Detailed Ideas
2.Composition
A. Analogy/Metaphor TEACHING SKILLFUL THINKING DIRECTLY:
1. Make explicit what makes the thinking skillful – help the students develop a thinking map.
2. Give students guided practice in doing the thinking skillfully as they engage with important content.
3. Prompt the students to think about their thinking so that they can guide themselves to do the thinking skillfully when it is called for. Asked students what kind of thinking they did and how they did it.
Prompted students to evaluate the effectiveness of doing this kind of thinking this way.
Asked students to plan how they would do the kind of thinking next time. Gave students interesting raw material to think about.
Organized group work with specific thinking tasks
Asked specific questions guided by the thinking
strategy.
Gave the students a graphic organizer to organize
their thinking.
Asked open-ended questions
Gave students time to think.
Asked extending questions when students responded
Prompted the groups to share their thinking.
Repeated what the students said to sum up their
comments
Gave positive reinforcement to the thinking.
Accepted everything that the students said. Gave the students a familiar object to model the
thinking being taught.
Prompted students to identify important questions to
ask to do the kind of thinking skillfully
Made the thinking strategy explicit in writing.
Asked open-ended questions
Gave students time to think.
Asked extending questions when students responded
Repeated what the students said to sum up their
comments
Gave positive reinforcement to the thinking.
Accepted everything that the students said. 3. Prompt students to think about their thinking 2. Engage students in doing this kind of thinking skillfully 1. Make explicit what makes this kind of thinking skillful TEACHING TECHNIQUES IN TBL LESSONS: Compare and Contrast

1. How are the things being compared alike?


2. How are the things being compared different?

Listing similarities and differences is not sufficient to do comparing and contrasting well How are they similar?


How are they different?


What similarities and differences are important?



Are there any other important questions to ask and answer to do comparing and contrasting skillfully and with insight and understanding? OPEN COMPARE AND CONTRAST How are they similar?


How are they different?


What similarities and differences are important?


What patterns or big ideas do the significant similarities and differences bring to mind?


What conclusion is suggested by the significant similarities and differences? OPEN COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Compare contrast:

Abraham Lincoln
and
Frederick Douglass
Open Compare and Contrast OTHER COMPARE-CONTRAST
LESSONS
In Secondary
Science
In Upper Primary Language Arts
In Upper Primary Art
The Compare and Contrast Thinking Map and Graphic Organizer for Grades 2 & 3 The 1st Grade Infusion lessons are teacher designed lessons based on a model of
direct instruction of skillful thinking infused into content that is derived from the work of other teachers
and supported by credible research This is a thinking task we give to teachers after demonstrating lessons on skillful comparing and contrasting:
Develop lesson ideas for skillful comparing and contrasting and sketch how you might develop it into a lesson. Use the following lesson planning organizer. 3. Prompt students to think about their thinking 2. Engage students in doing this kind of thinking skillfully 1. Make explicit what makes this kind of thinking skillful LESSON: TYPE OF SKILLFUL THINKING:
TEACHER:
CONTENT OBJECTIVES:
INFUSING SKILLFUL THINKING IS A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE FOR ALL STUDENTS EVERYWHERE This is the End of This Awareness Program on Infusing Skillful Thinking into Content Instruction
Developed by Robert Swartz and Tania Santiago, NCTT
www.nctt.net THANK YOU
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