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Proteins and Gene Expression
Transcript of Proteins and Gene Expression
What alters protein structure and function?
The Law of Mass Action allows us to predict which way a reversible reaction will proceed
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Gene expression and
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids
The secondary structure is the first degree of folding
Enzymes catalyze reactions
Proteins include enzymes, transporters, receptors, hormones and other signals, and structural and contractile proteins
Proteins can be embedded in the plasma membrane
Proteins can act as signals
Proteins form the "scaffolding" of cells
(What determines this sequence?)
Amino acids are held together by covalent (peptide) bonds
Secondary structure is held together by hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure is the 3rd level of folding.
The "shape" of the protein is held by mostly weaker bonds - hydrogen, ionic, van der Waals
Quaternary structure occurs when more than one protein is linked together
Hemoglobin has 4 subunits
Mutations in DNA can alter the primary structure
eg. sickle cell disease
Weaker bonds can be broken by heat, chemicals, changes in pH
from Silverthorn,D. 2013.
Human Physiology. An Integrated Approach
The effect of sickle
cell disease on hemoglobin.