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Designers through the years

a brief timeline on influential designers
by

Chelsea Leung

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Designers through the years

Designers through the years by Chelsea Leung Influential Global Events Cholera epidemic of Barcelona in 1885
1888 World Fair
Tragic Week 1909
Gothic Revival William Morris (1834-1896) “the first thing to be considered in the designing of Tapestry is the force, purity, and elegance of the silhouette of the objects represented, and nothing vague or indeterminate is admissible.” - Of the Revival of Design and Handicraft Brief Bio Born in Walthamstow, 1834 to a wealthy city stockbroker
entered Exeter College, Oxford in 1853 trained as architect
in 1855 together with Philip Webb and Edward Burne-Jones formed the Arts & Crafts movement
1861 they founded the Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company
1875 disbanded ‘the Firm’ and established a new company ‘Morris & Company’
1881 acquired disused factory at Merton Abbey near Wimbledon where he perfected indigo discharge print technique- hallmark of Morris style Antonio Gaudi (1952-1926) “those who look for the laws of nature as a support for their new works collaborate with the creator” Brief Bio Born in Catalonia in Spain, 1952
Graduated from Provincial School of Architecture in Barcelona in 1878
Paris World Fair 1878 Gaudi displayed a showcase impressing a patron Catalan industrialist Eusebi Guell commissioned to commission the Guell Estate and Guell Palace
After 1902- created structure know as equilibrated where structures would stand independently without internal bracing e.g. Casa Batllo
Associated with Catalan modernisme movement
Nature-based organic geometric forms Sagrada Familia- still in progress Casa Batllo Rene Lalique (1860-1945) Brief Bio Born in French village of Ay 1860
Age 16 apprenticed to jeweller Louis Aucoc to learn jewellery design and production
1878 Studied at Crystal Palace School of Art Sydenham in London
Returned to France and worked as freelance artists designing jewellery for French jewellers such as Cartier and Boucheron
1885 opened own business of glass and jewellery design
Influenced by natural world of French countryside and Japanese natural world art motifs
1920s Art deco style Trellis Wallpaper 1862 Fruit (pomegranate) design 1862 Dragonfly woman corsage ornament 1897-1898 Peter Behrens (1868-1940) Brief Bio Born 1868 in Hamburg, Germany
Moved to Munich in 1890 and worked as a painter, illustrator and book-binder
Frequented bohemian circles
In 1907 with ten other people gathered to create the German Werkbund, formed on principles and priorities of the Arts and Crafts Movement to focus on improving design of everyday products
Work for AEG in 1907 as artistic consultant
1922 taught at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
1936 called to conduct a Master class in architecture in Berlin with specific approval of Hitler, associating him with Hitler’s urbanistic dreams for Berlin Fan (model GB1), 1908 Synchronous Electric Clock, 1910 Walter Gropius (1883-1969) Brief Bio Born Berlin 1883
Studied at the Colleges of Technology of Berlin and Munich
Worked under Peter Behrens from 1907-10
1910 established a practice in Berlin with Adolf Meyer
1919- Master of Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts
1934- left Germany due to rise of National Socialism and Hitler
Moved to Massachusetts to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design
1945- founded architectural firm The Architects’ Collaborative (TAC) Gropius House- 1938 Bauhaus- 1925 Ray Eames (1912-1988) Arts and Architecture magazine Cover- 1944 Eames Lounge and Ottoman 1956 Frequently collaborated with husband Charles Eames
Born 1912 in Sacramento, California
1933 graduated from Bennett Women’s College in New York
Moved to NYC to study abstract expressionist painting with Hans Hofmann
1936 founded the American Abstract Artists group
1940 studied at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan
1979 awarded the Royal Gold Medal by the Royal Institute of British Architects- jointly with husband Charles AM Cassandre (1901-1968) Air Orient, Poste Aérienne- 1932 Maison Prunier, 1916 Born 1901 in Charkov, Ukraine
Lived in Paris 1915 while studying painting at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian
designed posters for the Paris furniture store Au Bûcheron (1923), for the apéritif Pivolo (1924), the paper "L'Intransigeant" (1925), Pernod (1934)
1930- founded the advertising studio Alliance Graphique International with Charles Loupot and Maurice Moyrand
1934- taught at the École des Arts Décoratifs
1936-1939 lived in New York as a freelance commercial artist notably for Harper’s Bazaar
1963- designed Yves Saint Laurent’s monogram Global Events Great Depression
Revolutions throughout Europe
Rise and expansion of political ideologies- Facism in Italy, Communism in Russia, Socialism in Germany
Increased industrial activity especially by America
Advancements in communications- globalisation
WW2- development of nuclear weaponry
Cold War- Iron Curtain Global Events World War 1.
Germany abolishes monarchy
the republic of China is established
The titanic sunk
the model T Ford dominated the car market
Albert Einstein Created the theory of general relativity Brief Bio Born 1904 Brooklyn, New York
Apprentice to Norman Bel Geddes in 1924
Opened own office for stage and industrial design activities 1929
World’s Fair 1939- designed the Democracy model in the Perisphere and the AT&T pavilion
1941- involved in the design of strategy rooms for the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the start of the war
1944- established the Society of Industrial Designers (SID) and became Vice President
1965 became first President of The Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA)
Formally reorganised his office in 1967 as Henry Dreyfuss Associates
Chaired the first meeting of the International Organization of Standards Technical Committee (ISO/TC) in Berlin which set international standards for 145 signs and symbols. "[If] people are made safer, more comfortable, more eager to purchase, more efficient, or just happier, the designer has succeeded." "What works good is better than what looks good, because what works good lasts." Frank Gehry (1929-) "There are people who design buildings that are not technically and financially good, and there are those who do. Two categories, simple." Brief Bio Born Toronto, Canada 1929
Moved to California in 1947 and graduated from the University of Southern California’s School of Architecture with a Bachelor of Architecture in 1954
Studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design but left before graduation
1969- launched “Easy Edges” cardboard furniture line
Later years- served as professor of architecture at Columbia University, Yale and USC (his alma mater) Global Events "The old jewel was based upon the idea of wealth; the new is built upon an artistic idea." “Type is one of the most eloquent means of expression in every epoch of style. Next to architecture, it gives the most characteristic portrait of a period and the most severe testimony of a nation’s intellectual status.” "Our guiding principle was that design is neither an intellectual nor a material affair, but simply an integral part of the stuff of life, necessary for everyone in a civilized society" Brief Bio Milton Glaser (1929-) Dieter Rams (1932-) Richard Rogers (1933-) Phillipe Starck (1949-) Dean Kamen (1951-) Bruce Mau (1959-) Yves Behar (1967-) Tiara de René Lalique en la fundación Calouste Gulbenkian. Brief Bio Born 1929 in New York City
Educated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bologna, Italy
Co-founded Pushpin Studios in 1954
1968- co-founded New York Magazine
Established Milton Glaser Inc. in 1974
Co-founded publication design firm WBMG in 1983
Affiliations with the International Design Conference (president from 1990-1991) and American Institute of Graphic Arts (vice president 1989)
Received an award from the American Institute of Architects in 1992 Global Events Global Events "In this profession, it’s important to have good clients to work with....The secret of success is affection. Only work with people you like." I Love New York- 1977 Bob Dylan, 1975 "I imagine our current situation will cause future generations to shudder at the thoughtlessness in the way in which we today fill our homes, our cities and our landscape with a chaos of assorted junk." Brief Bio 606 Universal Shelving System, 1960 Born 1932 in Wiesbaden, Germany
Graduated with honours in architecture at Wiesbaden School of Art in 1953
Joined Braun in 1955
1959- began simultaneously designing for Vitsœ
1961- Chief Design Officer at Braun
1968 Awarded ‘Honorary Royal Designer for Industry’ of the Royal Society of Arts, UK
1996 Receives ‘World Design Medal’ from the Industrial Designers Society of America
2007 Awarded Design Prize of the Federal republic of Germany for his life’s work Global Events Braun SK 4 radiogram, 1956 "Freedom is the only style... Nowadays, we have so many challenges; it is not really a priority to care for beauty. The only way for us is to focus on an ethic and ecological behaviour." Brief Bio Born 1949 in Paris
Studied at Ecole Nissim de Camondo in 1969
1969- appointed as art director at Pierre Cardin
1976- founded industrial design company Ubik and collaborated with Alessi, Drimmer and Vitra
Awarded Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres, France in 1985
Awarded Platinum Circle Award, Chicago, USA in 1987
1993- creative director of the Thompson Group
Created “Good Goods” in 1998
Artistic Director of Virgin Galactic 2006
Currently professor at L’Ecole National des Arts Decoratifs Global Events Asahi Beer Hall- 1989 Le Royal Monceau, 2010 "My passion and great enjoyment for architecture, and the reason the older I get the more I enjoy it, is because I believe we - architects - can effect the quality of life of the people." Brief Bio Lloyds Building 1978 3 World Trade Centre- 2006 Born 1933 in Florence, Italy
Graduated with a Masters degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962
Established architectural firm “Team 4” in 1963
Partnership with Renzo Piano in 1971
Established the Richard Rogers Partnership in 1977
Knighted in 1981 by Queen Elizabeth II
1985- awarded the RIBA Royal Gold Medal
2007- made Laureate of the Pritzker Architecture Prize Global Events "The word ‘studio’ is derives from ‘study’. Our object is not to know the answers before we do the work. It’s to know them after we do it. " WWII and the rise of Nazi Germany
The Great Depression
Prohibition in the United States ends
Warner Brothers release Technicolour films
The Golden Age of Hollywood
Empire State Building opened in 1931 Global Events The Great Depression
The Jazz Age
Beginning of surrealist movement
MoMA opens in Manhattan, NY Global Events WW2, including the attack on Pearl Harbour and development of the atomic bomb
The Holocaust
Arab-Israeli Conflict
UN formed
Development of commercial television
Hollywood film noir: Alfred Hitchcock
Swing genre of music- Frank Sinatra Cold War and other communist conflicts
Arab-Israeli conflict
Rise of independent African nations
Alaska and Hawaii become states
Space Race and creation of NASA
Rock and Roll- Elvis
Golden Age of Television
Art movements: pop art, figurative art- Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol Brief Bio Born in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada in 1959
Studied at the Ontario College of Art and Design
Joined the Fifty Fingers design group in 1980
Established his own studio “Bruce Mau Design”
1991 served as creative director of I.D. magazine
1996 became associate cullinan professor at Rice University School of Architecture in Houston
Awarded the Chrystler Award for Design Innovation in 1998
1998- also produced a 43 point program called “An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth”
2006- participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions
2007- in residence at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago
2009- founded the Massive Change Network Henry Dreyfuss (1904-1972) F.Scott Fitzgerald publishes the Great Gatsby
Walter Gropius builds Bauhaus
Tomb of Tutankhamen is discovered
Harlem Renaissance Western Electric 302 telephone- 1930 Bankers Trust Building- 1963 Coca Cola, 2011 Museum of Modern Art, 2011 Walt Disney Concert Hall, 2003 Frank Genry for Tiffany & Co.- 2006 The Segway PT, 2001 iBOT, 2006 Space Race and creation of NASA
Rock and Roll - Elvis
Colour TV – Golden Age of Television
Arab-Israeli conflict
Decolonisation in Africa and rise of independent African nations Art movements: pop art, figurative art- Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol
Coronation of Elizabeth II - iconic figure of the century
Visual culture became more dominant Space Race and creation of NASA
Rock and Roll - Elvis
Colour TV – Golden Age of Television
Arab-Israeli conflict
Decolonisation in Africa and rise of independent African nations
Art movements: pop art, figurative art- Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol
Coronation of Elizabeth II - iconic figure of the century Art movements: pop art, figurative art- Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol
Rise of hip hop in the 1980s and 90s
Technology advancement:
1970s-1980s personal computers began to enter homes
1980s – cable television spread rapidly (pay television) Global Events Rise of hip hop in the 1980s and 90s
Technology advancement:
1970s-1980s personal computers began to enter homes
1980s – cable television spread rapidly (pay television)
World undergoing second major period of globalization (first period stopped for World War I)
Americanization
Spread of nuclear weapons Global Events Technology advancement:
1970s-1980s personal computers began to enter homes
1980s – cable television spread rapidly (pay television)
World undergoing second major period of globalization (first period stopped for World War I)
Americanization
Spread of nuclear weapons Global Events World undergoing second major period of globalization (first period stopped for World War I)
Americanization
Spread of nuclear weapons Brief Bio Dean Kamen was born April 5th, 1951 in New York. An American entrepreneur and inventor living in New Hampshire, Kamen is most famous for his invention of the Segway. Kamen founded FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a program for raising interest in science and technology. He has been the subject of a book entitled Code name Ginger and he has won/been runner-up for multiple awards including the ASME Medal, Coolest Invention of 2003, Benjamin Franklin Medal. "A patent, or invention, is any assemblage of technologies or ideas that you can put together that nobody put together that way before. That's how the patent office defines it. That's an invention." Second Opium war, Failed assassination attempt on Napoleon III, Charles Darwin published Origin of Species, production of steel revolutionised by the Bessemer process, First transpacific telegraph cable laid, First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer, Britain is ruled by Queen Victoria Continuing growth of the British Empire
Prototype telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell
Lewis Carroll published through the looking glass
Second Industrial Revolution
American Indian War Global Events The Dreyfuss Affair which divided France. Commercial production of Automobiles began, powered planes became a very big interesting thing, upset between unions and governments in America, Large economic depression in America, The first Sherlock Holmes book was published. Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became fairly important Global Events Establishment of the Empire of Japan as a major world power.
Formation of the commonwealth of Australia.
The internal Combustion engine becomes widespread. Phonographs (effectively phones) become installed in homes.
The wright brothers fly the first plane. How has design responded to what is happening in society? "A Poster is to be viewed on the street. It should integrate architectural groups and enrichen the spreading facades. It should enliven not the individual advertisement board or building, but rather the huge blocks of stone and the vast area as a whole" Brief Bio Brief Bio One Laptop Per Child, 2005 Sodastream, 2012 Born Lausanne, Switzerland in 1967
Studied industrial design at the Art Centre College of Design in California
Fuseproject (est. 1999) design agency contributing to areas that include technology, furniture, sports, lifestyle and fashion
Worked with “One Laptop Per Child” campaign in 2005, won Brit Insurance 2008 Design Award for efforts
Redesigned NYC Condom Logo in 2008
Collaborated with Jimmyjane in 2009
Awarded IDEA Award in 2010
Listed in TIME Magazine’s top 25 visionaries Designers create solutions to problems affecting the efficient operation of society. Throughout this interactive timeline, designers have demonstrated their innovative approaches to addressing, investigating and creating goods and services that enable greater access relating to humankind’s convenience and wellbeing in accordance to societal needs, wants and expectations. The unique forms and features of each design are indicative of the designer’s contextual influences and their understanding of their community instigate aspirations to better their surroundings. Situations of wartimes or poverty often motivate and encourage designers like Walter Gropius through their cultural lenses, as opportunities to alleviate universal concerns affecting all society using the physical and financial resources available to them and contrastingly, in times of comfort, such as for Rene Lalique, luxury goods highly aesthetically pleasing are produced. Designed objects communicate symbols of meaning, association and intention of designers to shape and be shaped by the objects, interactions and environments that embody changes in society. What is produced from a design is a transmission of cultural concern based upon personal experiences, developed as the central concept underpinning the designer's intent. Recent trends in globalisation have enabled design to transcend cultural and geographic barriers and broadened the design perspective, critical to harnessing intercultural design processes and methodologies, to be more culturally aware as the present global community of designers including Yves Behar's One Laptop Per Child, establishing foundations to sustain the next generation within a finite world. Some designs are conservative, some innovative beyond their times, and all aiming for aesthetic brilliance, but they are all representations of the circumstances and environments presented to the designer to work within, as their contribution to interpreting the solution to contemporary questions within their respective societies. "Design is how you treat your customers. If you treat them well from an environmental, emotional, and aesthetic standpoint, you’re probably doing good design."
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