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english 11 multi media presentation
Transcript of english 11 multi media presentation
The rich stories, myths, legends, tales, epics as well as migratory and ancestral accounts retold from generation to generation of Native Americans marks the start of American literature. Nature as a living spiritual mother graced with spiritual powers was a common theme in Native American spoken literature and main characters were often portrayed as animals or plants. A popular genre was that of creation stories which described the formation of the Earth, such as the Cheyenne variation of a well-known creation story in which a turtle supports the world on its back.
National literature is a window to a nation's mind. Given its literary contributions are created by the people of the nation the figurative and literal landscape--shaped by its history, customs, and traditions-- is conveyed through the thoughts, ideas, ideals, values, and opinions of profound, original authors. Aspects and variations of a nation's culture are revealed in its literature and topics, issues, and attributes specific to it can often be themes exhibited in written works. Additionally, a nation's literature is as varied as the authors themselves; it includes political speeches, poetry, philosophy, drama, fiction and non-fiction
Phillis Wheatley was stolen from her birthplace in Senegal, West Africa around the age of seven and later sold to a wealthy Boston tailor named John Wheatley to be trained as a personal servant for his wife, Susanna. As it turned out, Phillis's life would deviate from that of a typical black slave's into a fortunate anomaly that enabled her to flourish intellectually. Noting her precociousness, the Wheatleys taught Phillis English as well as Latin and Greek. She also received an education in theology, mythology, literature, and ancient history. Poet Alexander Pope was one of her biggest influences along with John Milton. In her own poetry, Phillis was fond of the poetic form heroic couplet and writing in iambic pentameter. Christian themes and biblical symbolism were heavily prevalent in her poetry and more than a third of her poems were elegies devoted to famous people, friends, and the loved ones of those who sought her artistic and literary skills. She also wrote poetry that employed classical and neoclassical techniques as she was well-learned in Greek and Latin classics--she even translated Ovid's "Metamorphoses" and extended his lines with her own ideas in one of her epyllia. Phillis had both an American and British audience, but her first book of poems was published in London with the help of the Countess of Huntingdon after Boston publishers' refusal to print her works. It would seem most of Wheatley's work was intended for a Christian audience and churches especially regarding critical statements on slavery as churches were a greatly influential sector of society in the 1700s
Anne Bradstreet is considered the first poet as well as the first women to have her poetry published in the New World. She was born in 1612 Northampshire, England where she was educated by her father, Thomas Dudley, who was a steward for the Puritan Earl of Lincoln. Given her father's role, Bradstreet had access the the earl's extensive library and read many well-known authors such as Virgil, Homer, Ovid, Hobbes, Milton, and Plutarch. In 1628 she and her family including her husband, immigrated to the first of America's colonies with the Winthrop Puritan group. Bradstreet's poetry was mostly intended for herself, husband, and children but her poems were also customarily spread to her family and friends. Although her poetry, especially that of "The Tenth Muse", was regarded as conventional in style in her time, it became less so as she continually wrote of her personal experiences and life as a Puritan wife, mother, and woman. Bradstreet's writing,laden with metaphors, served as an outlet for her emotions and thoughts that were by Puritan standards and moral codes supposed to be repressed and kept private especially that of the love between a wife and husband. Her poetry also revealed her conflict with her great love of earthly pleasure and the Puritan idea of a person's true treasures being in heaven if they are to be saved. In one of her poems, it seems she embraces the idea of poetry as a way for her to be immortal on Earth.
Mary Rowlandson was born in England around 1637 and immigrated with her parents to America where she would eventually settle in Lancaster, Massachusetts after 1653. In 1656 she became the wife of Reverend Joseph Rowlandson, the town's first minister and with whom she had three surviving children. If not for her captivity by a band of mutli-tribal Native Americans during the Metacom war, Rowlandson may not have become one of the first female prose writers in America. She and her three children were captured from their home along with 24 other captives and taken hostage in 1676; her personal narrative pioneered what would become known as the captivity genre. The purpose of her widely read book was to serve as a testament to and laudation of God's power and the strength of his will. With an audience largely comprised of fellow Puritans, Rowlandson had to be quite restrained in the content and expressions of her narrative. She was restricted by her religious faith and religious community in what she could reveal about what happened during her captivity and her emotional reactions. Although a lot of her narrative reads as a person who is emotionally detached from the described events, Rowland's subjectivity did seep through and she did not always write in ways that perfectly aligned with Puritan views and conventions. God was supposed to be explicitly attributed with the credit for her survival, strength, and redemption but their were instances where she did not emphasize God as the source of a quality such as when she described the exemplary knitting and bargaining skills she developed while in captivity.
Early American and Colonial literature illustrated the journey to the New World and what life was like for early settlers and colonists through personal eye-witness accounts in journals, diaries, and personal narratives. Literary artifacts of significant events such as the Great Awakening, the American Revolution, and the birth of America as an independent nation expose the details that expand past the knowledge a secondary source can give. Sermons from religious revivalists during the Great Awakening show the words that terrified people into conversion and jolted those already converted but suffering from spiritual laziness out of their complacency with an electric shock of fervent religious passion. Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" reveals the thoughts many at the time were too reluctant to think or else too timid to speak. Then there are slave narratives such as Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African" that vividly and eloquently encapsulate the cruelty and tragedy of slavery in a way only a person who has lived it can truly express.
The prose of American literature encompasses many forms or writing such as journals, diaries, pamphlets, autobiographies, histories, Puritan sermons, and slave narratives.
Historical Insights of Early American Literature
Anne Bradstreet's "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America" was the first published book of poetry in Colonial America. As the first African-American female poet, Phillis Wheatley wrote poetry against slavery and like Bradstreet injected religious themes and tones in her work. There was also the metaphysical poetry of the Puritans who emphasized a religious message in all their writing.
Native American Literature
NATIVE AMERICAN LITERATURE
Johnathan Edwards was born on October 05, 1703 in East Windsor, Connecticut to a pastor father as well as the daughter of a pastor. He was schooled by his father and at age thirteen he enrolled into Yale College where he obtained his master's degree and graduated as valedictorian. After his full conversion into Puritanism he decided on ministry as his career of choice and erased previous reluctance on certain theological concepts and doctrine such as predetermination. With the passing of his grandfather in 1729, Edwards succeeded his grandfather's position in the Northampton pulpit as senior minister.As a preacher Edwards's audience encompassed non-Puritans in addition to Puritans and his sermons inspired many conversions. Edwards's sermons were passionate, vivid, and laced with intricate imagery that etched his message into the listeners' minds. The purpose of his sermons were the salvation of his followers and listeners through understanding and applying his teachings of God, Jesus Christ, and the importance of faith and being in tune to the presence, glory, and goodness of God.